EXERCISE AND QUALITY OF LIFE

Research article

Volume 4, No. 1, 2012, 43-52

UDC 796.323.2-051:796.015.52

INFLUENCE OF COMPLEX TRAINING ON EXPLOSIVE

POWER OF KNEE EXTENSOR MUSCLES OF BASKETBALL

JUNIORS

Dejan Javorac^{}

Faculty of Sport and Physical Education

University of Novi Sad, Serbia

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to establish the effects of an experimental treatment, so called

ìRussian complexî on explosive leg power of the basketball players belonging to the

experimental group. Explosive leg power was measured on the sample consisting of 40

basketball players from the Serbian league: 20 basketball players from the experimental group

and 20 from the control group, all aged between 16 and 18. The experimental group was the

subject of the experimental treatment, so called ìRussian complexî, which included gym

exercises and took place twice a week during the period of ten weeks. The results of the

univariate analysis of covariance indicated that the experimental programme led to a

statistically significant improvement of all three motor variables used for the evaluation of

explosive leg power (Sargent Jump Test, Standing Triple Jump and Standing Jump) in the

experimental group of examinees, in comparison to the control group.

Keywords: Russian complex, explosive leg power, training effects, basketball players.

Introduction

The complex training of basketball players was established by Russian and Bulgarian

coaches and it included a combination of more and less demanding exercises during one

training (Ebben, & Blackard, 1998). In science and sport that type of exchanging maximum

and explosive muscle contractions of the same (agonistic) muscle group is known as a

ìcomplex trainingî. There is an opinion among coaches that overcoming difficulties caused

by loading a body (e.g. by weights), as well as dealing with small loading (e.g. body weight)

produces a better neuromuscular adaptation (Sale, 2002).

This complex type of training causes a better neuromuscular adaptation and the

maximum force and speed of using that force, so the combination of concentric, exentric-

Novi Sad, Serbia, e-mail: javorac.dejan@gmail.com

© 2012 Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia

D. Javorac

concentric explosive exercises influences a quick generating of muscular force (Adams,

OíShea, OíShea, & Climstein, 1992; Burger, Boyer-Kendrick, & Dolny, 2000; Fatouros et al.,

2000; Jensen, Ebben, Blackard, McLaughlin, Watts, 1999: Jensen, & Ebben, 2003).

Recently science has confirmed the assumptions of coaches and the research in

laboratories has proved that exchanging more and less demanding exercises can lead to

significant training effects and strength improvement (Blakey & Southard, 1987; Ebben &

Blackard, 1998; Duthie, Young, & Aitken, 2002).

The implementation of bigger physical loading, such as pre-loading, improves

explosive movements. Exercising with loading causes a temporarily better performance of the

following action due to the increased stimulation of the central nervous system (Jensen et al.,

1999; Fatouros et al., 2000).

Excitation of the central nervous system is the result of the acute physiological

adaptation, which lasts between 8 and 10 minutes and it is called Postactivation Potentiation -

PAP (Sale, 2002).

The essence of PAP is the influence of exercises with big loading which causes a high

level of stimulation of nerves and results in the involvement of a greater number of motor

units and a higher frequency of discharging neural impulses. There are two basic ways of

applying the complex training:

1) Combining big and small loading between the series of exercises

2) Combining big and small loading during the series, so called, super-series.

In this research the second method was used and it represents grouping two or more

exercises which are done in one big series (super-series), while the exercises with bigger and

smaller loading are done interchangeably with the maximum speed. This method is known as

the ìRussian complexî.

Method

The sample consisted of 40 basketball players (Serbian league west): 20 basketball

players from the experimental group and 20 from the control group all aged between 16 and

18. They were subjected to both initial and control measurement of the explosive leg power.

The initial measurement was done in September, while the control measurement took place in

November, after two weeks of the treatment.

With the purpose of evaluating explosive leg power the following tests were applied

(the best result was taken into account):

1) Sargent Jump Test ñ reached height (cm) (Baö„evan and Antekolovi„, 2008).

2) Standing Triple Jump (cm) and

3) Standing Jump (cm).

These tests of motor abilities were applied in both initial and final measurement in the

same groups of examinees. The tests belong to the group of composite tests with three units of

measurement, while only the best results were used for the statistical data processing.

44

Complex strength training in basketball juniors

The experimental programme lasted ten weeks. The experimental group, apart from

regular basketball trainings, had complex trainings in a gym twice a week, while the control

group had only technical tactical basketball trainings. The experimental group used 3-5

exercises for lower limbs in order to strengthen them.

Every exercise done by the basketball players from the experimental group consisted

of preloading which was 50-80% of one-rep. max (1RM). This level of performance was

established by measuring the absolute strength of every individual player. After preloading

and a 2 min break specific exercises without loading took place

(e.g. half squat with

preloading as the basic exercise, followed by half-squat standing jumps without loading as a

specific exercise). Preloading was performed in 4 series with 6-8 repetitions, while specific

exercises were done with 10 repetitions. The break between the series lasted 4 minutes.

Statistical data processing consisted of the arithmetic mean (M) and standard deviation

(SD) of all measuring units for all three tests of motor abilities. It was followed by

establishing the reliability of the tests by applying Cronbachís alpha coefficient in both initial

and final measurement for both groups of examinees. After that basic descriptive statistical

values of motor variables of the initial and final measurement were established: M, SD,

minimum (MIN) and maximum (MAX) values of the results of measurements.

Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was implemented with the purpose of

establishing the effects of the training programme between two tests. Univariate analysis of

covariance (ANCOVA) was used with the purpose of establishing (statistically significant

differences between the initial and final measurement)

Results

Prior to the statistical data processing, the reliability of motor measuring instruments

was established. In accordance with the data processing, the coefficient of reliability was

established using Cronbachís · coefficient, since the motor tests were composite and included

three units. In order to establish the reliability, the group of examinees and the time of

measurement (initial and final) were also taken into account.

45

D. Javorac

Table 1.

Reliability of composite motor tests used in the experimental group of basketball players for

the initial and final measurement.

Masurement

Test

M SD

·

Sargent Jump Test (cm)

0,82

I

1. Sargent Jump Test (cm)

297,70

8,05

N

2. Sargent Jump Test (cm)

297,85

8,37

I

3. Sargent Jump Test (cm)

297,95

8,42

T

Standing Triple Jump (cm)

0,88

I

1. Standing Triple Jump (cm)

586,80

17,92

A

2. Standing Triple Jump (cm)

586,50

18,29

L

3. Standing Triple Jump (cm)

588,45

29,13

Standing Jump (cm)

0,83

1. Standing Jump (cm)

213,90

15,88

2. Standing Jump (cm)

213,00

14,64

3. Standing Jump (cm)

210,80

13,27

Sargent Jump Test (cm)

0,91

1. Sargent Jump Test (cm)

303,25

8,97

2. Sargent Jump Test (cm)

300,10

10,66

F

3. Sargent Jump Test (cm)

299,50

9,93

I

Standing Triple Jump (cm)

0,80

N

1. Standing Triple Jump (cm)

592,20

17,34

A

2. Standing Triple Jump (cm)

591,80

18,96

L

3. Standing Triple Jump (cm)

596,95

20,15

Standing Jump (cm)

0,83

1. Standing Jump (cm)

218,85

12,72

2. Standing Jump (cm)

219,75

13,94

3. Standing Jump (cm)

218,15

12,27

· - Cronbachís coefficient of reliability, M - arithmetic mean; SD - standard deviation

46

Complex strength training in basketball juniors

Values of the coefficient of reliability for the experimental group of basketball players

indicate that the greatest reliability belongs to Sargent Jump Test in the final measurement (·

= 0,91). Other motor tests showed good reliability when used for the evaluation of explosive

leg power in the initial and final measurement.

Taking the values of the arithmetic mean into account, it can be concluded that in the

initial measurement of Sargent Jump Test the examinees from the experimental group of

basketball players had the best average result in the third attempt. In the first two attempts

they obviously practiced the technique of the jump, while in the third they did their best and

had the best result. In the final measurement the best average result was achieved in the first

attempt. In other two attempts the results were worse. The best result in the first attempt can

be the consequence of the previous experience the basketball players had in the initial

measurement, which certainly influenced the results in the first attempt after ten weeks.

In the second test (Standing Triple Jump) used for the evaluation of the explosive leg

power, the basketball players from the experimental group achieved the best average results

of the initial and final measurement in the third attempt. Having understood the task, they did

their best and achieved the best results. The technique necessary for doing a triple jump was

adjusted to the power of legs and it resulted in having the best results in the third attempt. In

the first two attempts the players just practiced the technique of the jump.

When the basketball players from the experimental group were subjected to the test

Standing Jump, they achieved the best average results of the initial measurement in the first

attempt. The fact that the values of the results decreased in the attempts that followed proves

that they had the greatest strength in the first attempt. In the final measurement the best

average results were achieved in the second attempt. Then they used all their potentials and

did their best.

The examinees from the experimental group are extremely homogeneous in all three

attempts in both initial and final measurement, which is indicated by the values of the

arithmetic mean and standard deviation. It can be concluded that all basketball players from

the experimental group are on similar levels of development of explosive leg power.

The greatest reliability in the control group of basketball players was showed by the

test Standing Triple Jump (· = 0,86) in the final measurement. The results of the analysis of

reliability showed by the test of motor abilities in the control group of basketball players in

the initial and final measurement indicate high reliability of these tests when they are used to

evaluate the explosive power of legs.

The average results of the variable Sargent Jump Test show that this group of

basketball players had the best results in the initial and final measurement during the first

attempt when they did the exercise with the greatest strength and achieved the best results. In

the second and third attempt the average results were gradually becoming lower in both initial

and final measurement as the consequence of the lack of strength in leg muscles.

47

D. Javorac

Table 2.

Reliability of composite motor tests used for the control group of basketball players in the

initial and final measurement.

Measurement

Test

M SD

·

Sargent Jump Test (cm)

0,80

I

1. Sargent Jump Test (cm)

298,35

7,42

N

2. Sargent Jump Test (cm)

296,50

5,62

I

3. Sargent Jump Test (cm)

291,58

7,67

T

Standing Triple Jump (cm)

0,80

I

1. Standing Triple Jump (cm)

584,95

22,68

A

2. Standing Triple Jump (cm)

588,70

11,97

L

3. Standing Triple Jump (cm)

590,65

13,30

Standing Jump (cm)

0,80

1. Standing Jump (cm)

213,25

10,61

2. Standing Jump (cm)

209,75

13,58

3. Standing Jump (cm)

211,55

10,24

Sargent Jump Test (cm)

0,85

1. Sargent Jump Test (cm)

298,35

6,03

2. Sargent Jump Test (cm)

295,65

6,56

F

3. Sargent Jump Test (cm)

294,70

4,89

I

Standing Triple Jump (cm)

0,86

N

1. Standing Triple Jump (cm)

586,50

15,81

A

2. Standing Triple Jump (cm)

585,55

12,94

L

3. Standing Triple Jump (cm)

581,85

13,69

Standing Jump (cm)

0,82

1. Standing Jump (cm)

214,65

12,40

2. Standing Jump (cm)

211,90

9,79

3. Standing Jump (cm)

214,45

10,05

· - Cronbachís coefficient of reliability, M - arithmetic mean; SD - standard deviation

In the test Standing Triple Jump, the best average results of the initial measurement

were achieved in the third attempt. Having learned how to perform the task in the previous

two attempts, the players were ready to achieve the best average results. In the final

measurement, having enough experience from the initial measurement, the basketball players

from the control group achieved the best result in the first measurement, while in other two

attempts the results were weaker, as the consequence of leg exhaustion.

48

Complex strength training in basketball juniors

The basketball players from the control group achieved the best results in the test

Standing Jump in the first attempt in both initial and final measurement when they used the

knowledge of performing the jump (technique of the jump), as well as the strength of legs.

They coordinated the movements of legs and arms and achieved the best results. In latter

attempts their average results were somewhat weaker, which was the consequence of muscle

exhaustion and the decrease of the level of strength.

Similarly to the basketball players from the experimental group of examinees, the

players from the control group were also homogenous in all tests in all three attempts (in both

initial and final measurement. The fact that the development of the explosive leg power is

synchronized is supported by the values of arithmetic mean.

The values of the results of arithmetic means and standard deviations (Table 3)

indicate that the basketball players from the experimental and control group are homogenous

in both initial and final measurement for all three motor variables. These basketball players

are on similar level of development of explosive leg power to other players of their age. Being

homogenous is the consequence of the selection of basketball players in their clubs and a

similar type of trainings which players are mostly exposed by their coaches.

Table 3.

Basic descriptive statistical values of motor variables

Measurement

Variable

Group

M SD MIN MAX

Experimental

302,35

7,15

290

322

Sargent Jump Test (cm)

Initial

Control

300,45

5,57

290

310

Experimental

597,95

20,34

550

630

measurement Standing Triple Jump

(cm)

Control

594,60

11,36

577

610

Experimental

220,15

12,38

195

245

Standing Jump (cm)

Control

218,00

10,77

195

236

Experimental

304,85

8,74

285

328

Sargent Jump Test (cm)

Final

Control

299,75

5,73

291

312

measurement Standing Triple Jump

Experimental

604,85

8,56

570

645

(cm)

Control

595,85

13,10

571

615

Experimental

225,60

9,86

209

245

Standing Jump (cm)

Control

219,80

9,69

201

235

Mñarithmetic mean; SDñstandard deviation; MINñmin. values of the results; MAXñmax. values of the results

The analysis the results from Table 4 showed that there are statistically significant

differences (p = 0,04) between the experimental and control group of basketball players only

in the variable Sargent Jump Test in the final measurement on behalf of the examinees from

the experimental group. There were no noticeable statistically significant differences for other

motor variables in the initial and final measurement. Both groups were almost on the same

level before the experimental programme.

49

D. Javorac

Table 4.

Results of univariate analysis of variance of motor variables (ANOVA)

Measurement Variable

F

p

Sargent Jump Test (cm)

0,88

0,36

Initial

Standing Triple Jump (cm)

0,41

0,52

Standing Jump (cm)

0,34

0,56

Sargent Jump Test (cm)

4,77

0,04

Final

Standing Triple Jump (cm)

3,14

0,08

Standing Jump (cm)

3,52

0,07

F-value of F-test; p-the level of statistical significance of F-test

Table 5 shows the results of the univariate analysis of covariance which indicate the

existence of statistically significant differences in all three motor variables on behalf of the

experimental group of examinees after the experimental treatment ìRussian complexî was

applied. After the effect of initial measurement was neutralized the examinees from the

experimental group of basketball players achieved statistically significant and better results in

comparison to the examinees from the control group of basketball players in all three motor

variables: Sargent Jump Test (p = 0,01), Standing Triple Jump (p = 0,05) and Standing Jump

(p = 0,03).

Table 5.

Univariate analysis of covariance for motor variables (ANCOVA)

Variable

Group

M^{*}

F

p

Experimental

303,92

Sargent Jump Test (cm)

8,45

0,01

Control

300,72

Experimental

603,52

Standing Triple Jump (cm)

4,26

0,05

Control

597,22

Experimental

224,92

Standing Jump (cm)

5,11

0,03

Control

220,52

M*- corrected arithmetic mean; F - value of the relation of statistical significance of differences among

the groups; p - level of statistical significance of F-relation

50

Complex strength training in basketball juniors

Discussion

Having applied the ìRussian complexî of exercising in a gym, the purpose of which

was to generate the muscle power through additional trainings during the period of ten weeks,

the examinees from the experimental group improved their results in all three motor variables

used for the evaluation of explosive power and achieved statistically significant improvement

in all three variables in comparison to the examinees from the control group.

The use of higher loading for gym exercises, which served as warm-up exercises,

caused the improvement of explosive leg power of the basketball players from the

experimental group. Doing exercises with high loading allowed temporary improvement of

the following action due to the increased stimulation of the central nervous system. These

results have been confirmed by the research (Jensen et al., 1999; Fatouros et al., 2000).

Using the basic principles of the ìRussian complexî of exercises, combining high and

low loading between the series of exercises and combining high and low loading inside a

series, so-called super series, has led to the increase of power in leg muscles in the

experimental group of basketball players.

Taking into account that the applied experimental protocol has proved to be effective

in working with young basketball players, further research verification is required, as well as

the control of factors which were not the subject of this research (gender, SES, variables

which are related to a court, club, etc.)

References

Adams, K., OíShea, J. P., OíShea K. L., & Climstein, M. (1992). The effect of six weeks of

squat, plyometric and squat-plyometric training on power production. Journal of

Strength and Conditioning Research, 6(1), 36-41.

Baö„evan, S., & Antekolovi„, Lj. (2008). Konstrukcija i validacija mjernog instrumenta za

procjenu odraznih sposobnosti. U I. Juki„ (Ur.) Kondicijska priprema sportaöa (str.

154-158). Zagreb: Kinezioloöki fakultet, Udruga kondicijskih trenera Hrvatske.

Blakey, J. B., & Southard, D. (1987). The combined effect of weight training and plyometrics

on dynamic leg strength and leg power. Journal of Applied Sports Science Research,

1(1), 14-16.

Burger, T., Boyer-Kendrick, T., & Dolny, D. (2000). Complex training compared to a

combined weight training and plyometric training program. Journal of Strength and

Conditioning Research, 14(3), 360-365.

Duthie, G., Young, W., & Aitken, D. (2002). The acute effect of heavy loads on jump squat

performance: An evuluation of the complex training and contrast methods of power

development. Journal of Strenght and Conditioning Research, 16(4), 530-538.

Ebben, W., & Blackard, D. (1998). Paired for strength: A look at combined weight training

and plyometric training with an emphasis on increasing the vertical jump. Training

and Conditioning, 8(3), 55-63.

Fatouros, I. G., Jamurtas, A. Z., Leontsini, D., Taxildaris, K., Aggelousis, N., Kostopoulos, N.

et al.

(2000). Evaluation of plyometric exercise training, weight training, and their

combination on vertical jumping performance and leg strength. Journal of Strength

and Conditioning Research, 14(4), 470-476.

51

D. Javorac

Jensen, R. L., & Ebben, W. (2003). Kinetic analysis of complex training, rest interval effect

on vertical jump performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 17(2),

345-349.

Jensen, R. L., Ebben, W. P., Blackard, D. O., McLaughlin, B. P., & Watts, P. B. (1999).

Kinetic and electromyographic analysis of combined strength and plyometric training

in women basketball players. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, 31(5), 193-

198.

Sale, D. (2002). Postactivation potentiation: role in human performance. Exercise and Sport

Sciences Reviews, 30(3), 138-143.

Submitted April 15, 2012

Accepted June 15, 2012

52