EXERCISE AND QUALITY OF LIFE

Research article

Volume 3, No. 1, 2011, 41-49

UDC 572.512-057.875:796.012.11

RELATIONS BETWEEN ANTHROPOMETRIC

CHARACTERISTICS AND LATENT DIMENSIONS OF

STRENGTH IN PERSONS OF ABOVE-AVERAGE MOTOR

ABILITIES

Milan Cvetkovi„^{}, Damjan Jaköi„ and Dejan Orli„

Faculty of sport and physical education

University of Novi Sad

Abstract

Mere enrollment on the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education assumes that the

population has been selected according to several criteria. One of the most typical criteria is

motor development, hence students of sport and physical education might be treated as persons

of above-average motor abilities. Test battery of 17 anthropometrical tests and 14 strength tests

has been applied on the sample of 149 males, students of the Faculty of Sport and Physical

Education in Novi Sad. The purpose of this paper is to determine relations between

anthropometrical measures and latent dimensions of strength. Within the latent space of strength,

after Promax rotation of major components and based on KG criteria, three strength factors have

been isolated: static and repetitive strength, especially that of hands and trunk to a lesser degree,

explosive strength of legs, and explosive strength of arms. Finaly, three statistically significant

canonical correlations have been isolated. The first is that of explosive strength of arms having

negative correlation with all anthropometrical variables, the second is explosive strength of legs

which is in negative correlation with subcutaneous fat tissue of upper leg and triceps, but in

positive correlation with the measures of longitudinal dimensionality of skeleton, whereas the

third is static and repetitive strength of arms (and trunk to a lesser degree) being in negative

correlation with body height and leg length.

Key words: students/ static and repetitive strength/ explosive strength

Introduction

Anthropometric characteristics are the most obvious area within the bio-psycho-

sociological status of the human population. They are the manifestation of morphological

dimensions such as the constitution, body composition, structure or assembly as an organized

and relatively constant integrity of features relative to each other. This set is usually formed by

endogenous factors (internal) and to a lesser extent by exogenous (external, middle).

Novi Sad, Serbia. E-mail: cveksha@gmail.com

© 2010 Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia

M. Cvetkovi„ et al.

Motor skills are usually defined as indicators of development level of the basic motion

dimensions of human that influence the successful realization of movement, regardless of

whether that skills are acquired through training or not. Motor ability, examined in this work -

strength, Zaciorski (1975) defines as the ability of man to overcome the external resistance, or to

confront him with straining of muscle.

The sample of respondents is comprised of persons of above average motor skills, in fact,

students of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education. Mere enrollment on this kind of faculty

assumes that the population has been selected according to several criteria, including: the level of

biological development, the level of health development (injured or sick respondents do not even

take the entrance exam), the level of motor development and the level of intellectual and

conative development . One of the most typical criterion is exactly the motor development, and

hence it is mentioned above.

Researching of relationships between anthropometric characteristics and dimensions of

latent power in people of above average motor skills was conducted by numerous authors

starting from Kureli„, Momirovi„, Stojanovi„, äturm, Radojev„ and Viski„-ätalec (1975), and

their capital work, to the latest researches by Prûulj and Pelemiö (2010). These authors have

obtained relatively high correlation of areas mentioned.

The aim of this paper is to determine the relation between anthropometric characteristics

and latent dimensions of strength of this specific population.

Method

The sample of participants in this paper consisted of 149 male students of Faculty of

Sport and Physical Education from Novi Sad. The mean age of participants on the test day was

20.15 decimal years (± 0.83). All of the participants were clinically healthy and highly motivated

to participate, on the test day.

The battery of 17 anthropometric measures was applied on respondents, 15 measures that

are part of the International Biological Program (IBP) battery and two that are not, but the

authors felt that their use will contribute to better understanding of relations between studied

areas. Exactly as directed by IBP, measurements of anthropometric characteristics were carried

out.

According to factorial morphological model (Viski„-ätalec, 1974; Kureli„, Momirovi„,

Stojanovi„, äturm, Radojevi„, & Viski„-ätalec, 1975; Stojanovi„, Solari„, Vukosavljevi„, &

Momirovi„, 1975, etc..), the following measures were applied:

For evaluation of the longitudinal dimensionality of the skeleton: Body height, Arm

length and Leg length.

For evaluation of the transversal dimensionality of the skeleton: Diameter of the ankle,

Diameter of the knee joint and Diameter of the pelvis.

For evaluation of the body volume and weight: Body weight, Circumference of the

chest (middle), Circumference of the upper arm (stretched), Circumference of the

upper arm (during flexion and contraction), Circumference of the upper leg and

Circumference of the lower leg.

For evaluation of the subcutaneous fat tissue: Skin fold on the back (subscapular),

Forearm skin fold (triceps), Skin fold of the abdomen, Skin fold of the upper leg and

Skin fold of the lower leg.

42

Anthropometric characteristics and strength in students

For the evaluation of strength a battery of 14 motor tests was applied, which in previous

researches showed great reliability on the respondents of similar age and of similar life style.

Applied battery is part of a far more complex battery defined by Metikoö, Prot, Hoffman, Pintar

and Oreb

(1989) and based on its standardization, qualified measurers performed the

measurement.

The battery consisted of the following measuring instruments: Pull-ups, Lifting the trunk

in

30 seconds, Horizontal endurance on the back, Standing long jump, Deep squat for 30

seconds, Throwing a medicine ball while lying on the back, Endurance in a push-up,

Straightening of trunk, Standing high jump, Endurance under load in half-squat, Throwing a

medicine ball from the chest during spread leg sitting, Hanging while in pull-up position, Push-

ups and Standing triple jump.

Also, a detailed description and organizational details related to the measurement can be

found in Cvetkovi„ (2007).

As far as statistical processing, we applied the following statistical procedures:

For all variables that were used, the basic descriptive statistics were calculated. Then, the

variables which evaluated strength were factorized by rotating the initial matrix into a more

favorable OBLIVAX oblique solution (Momirovi„, 1998). In the paper by Momirovi„ (1999),

the behavior of different types of oblique factorial solutions was described, and was found that

OBLIVAX oblique rotation extracted latent dimensions with the most information and with

greatest representativeness, even compared to other oblique rotations like Orthoblique rotation

(Harris & Kaiser, 1964), Promax (Hendrickson & White, 1964) and Direct oblimin (Jenrich, &

Sampson, 1966) which were applied in the same paper. The number of statistically significant

factors was determined based on Intruder in the Dust (ITD) criterion (Momirovi„, 1998), which

is a relaxed PB criterion (ätalec and Momirovi„, 1971) and also represent a compromise between

the criteria with the hyper-factorization tendency (eg., KG (Kaiser, 1961)) and the criteria with

hypo-factorization (eg., Scree (Cattel, 1966)). Factors extracted in this way are latent dimensions

of power, and after extraction their definition followed. Relationships between the latent

dimensions of strength and anthropometric characteristics were determined by canonical

correlation analysis, while observing if the variables sets are well designed and which one was

better designed in the second set, was performed by redundant analysis.

43

M. Cvetkovi„ et al.

Results

Tables 1 and 2 show the basic descriptive statistics of variables.

Table 1

Basic descriptive statistics of anthropometric variables

VARIABLE

M SD

MIN

MAX

SKE

KUR

Body height (mm)

1816.26

62.996

1670

1975

.054

-.625

Arm length (mm)

798.32

36.171

717

899

.036

-.304

Leg length (mm)

1022.36

44.142

894

1134

-.068

-.010

Ankle diameter (mm)

70.99

3.895

62

85

.694

1.132

Knee joint diameter (mm)

100.22

4.324

91

113

.166

-.204

Width of the pelvis (mm)

286.68

16.600

255

345

.505

.534

Body weight (kg)

77.900

9.3314

54.6

123.8

.894

3.223

Chest circumference, middle (cm)

96.71

5.440

80

118

.399

1.762

Circumference of stretched upper arm (cm)

28.13

2.614

22

36

.677

.890

Circumference of bent upper arm (cm)

31.89

2.785

24

40

.468

.609

Upper leg circumference (cm)

56.23

4.358

45

74

.404

1.317

Lower leg circumference (cm)

36.74

2.400

32

44

.269

.099

Back skin fold (mm)

118.56

33.335

68

254

1.375

2.777

Triceps skin fold (mm)

91.02

32.100

28

190

.605

.092

Abdominal skin fold (mm)

131.31

51.240

52

300

.696

-.062

Upper leg skin fold (mm)

157.95

47.499

50

300

.195

-.289

Lower leg skin fold (mm)

96.82

39.948

40

240

1.083

1.054

Legend: M ñ mean, SD ñ standard deviation, MIN ñ minimal result, MAX ñ maximal result, SKE ñ skewness, KUR

- kurtosis

Based on the results from Table 1 it can be seen that the homogeneity of the sample is

present on all the variables, except for variables of Back skin fold and Lower leg skin fold where

some higher skewness results were observed, but nothing worrisome because it is not uncommon

that the values for subcutaneous fat are not normally distributed (eg Momirovi„, Hoöek, Prot and

Bosnar, 2003). Also, skewness is positive in all variables that assess the subcutaneous fat tissue,

which indicates that the distribution curve of results found in these variables moved to the area

of small values, which in turn implies that the students of the Faculty of Physical Education are

generally athletic type, which is expected.

44

Anthropometric characteristics and strength in students

Table 2.

Basic descriptive statistics of the strength variables

VARIABLE

M SD MIN MAX SKE KUR

Pull-ups (freq.)

10.67

5.274

0

31

1.089

1.815

Lifting the trunk (freq.)

30.28

3.257

22

38

.173

.024

Horizontal endurance (s)

52.75

23.283

12

142

.890

1.561

Standing long jump (cm)

245.87

18.461

198

299

.228

.637

Deep squat (freq.)

32.15

2.432

23

39

-.159

1.340

Throwing a medicine ball (cm)

1034.56

142.024

640

1490

.146

.305

Endurance in a push-up (s)

43.92

17.968

16

127

1.059

2.168

Straightening of trunk (freq.)

67.42

29.806

11

200

1.855

4.977

Standing high jump (cm)

52.06

6.117

37

73

.527

.776

Endurance in half-squat (s)

64.92

34.406

12

255

1.694

5.798

Throwing a medicine ball (sit) (cm)

684.63

78.297

500

910

.243

.161

Hanging while in pull-up (s)

62.25

18.357

20

106

.196

-.312

Push-ups (freq.)

15.43

8.135

2

50

1.362

2.811

Standing triple jump (cm)

685.07

53.263

530

851

.268

.300

By looking at Table 2 we can observe that the value of the skewness in the variables

Straightening of trunk, Endurance in half-squat and Pushups supports the fact that the motor

ability assessed with these measuring instruments isnít applied on a homogeneous population.

Since the strength is in question, where the difference in the quality of performance depends

from person to person, even this finding isnít worrying.

Table 3

Results of OBLIVAX rotatation according to ITD criteria

VARIABLE

H*1 A**1

H2 A2

H3 A3

Pull-ups

.816

.763

.437

.183

-.298

.029

Lifting the trunk

.613

.558

.217

-.036

-.376

-.191

Horizontal endurance

.351

.327

-.250

-.558

-.554

-.616

Standing long jump

.369

.046

.901

.862

-.362

-.073

Deep squat

.570

.558

.163

-.059

-.270

-.092

Throwing medicine ball (back)

.337

-.015

.475

.237

-.836

-.765

Endurance in a push-up

.780

.788

.255

-.015

-.266

.006

Straightening of trunk

.236

.210

-.027

-.179

-.267

-.250

Standing high jump

.299

.001

.865

.866

-.272

.003

Endurance in half-squat

.266

.203

.068

-.084

-.304

-.259

Throwing a medicine ball (sit)

.156

-.225

.439

.252

-.835

-.834

Hanging while in pull-up

.607

.683

.286

.173

.090

.385

Push-ups

.802

.761

.362

.090

-.325

-.028

Standing triple jump

.307

-.005

.870

.857

-.317

-.047

Legend:, *H ñ structure, **A ñ pattern

45

M. Cvetkovi„ et al.

After factorial analysis (Table 3) it was noted that three principal components were

identified. The first principal component is composed of the following manifestations:

Endurance in push-up, Pull-ups, Push-ups, Hanging while in pull-up and to a lesser degree

Lifting the trunk and Deep squat, so this factor could be interpreted as Static and repetitive

strength mainly of arms, and to a lesser degree of trunk.

The second factor was defined based on three manifestations: Standing high jump,

Standing long jump and Standing triple jump and unambiguously is defined as Explosive leg

strength.

The third factor consisted of: Throwing a medicine ball while sitting and Throwing a

medicine ball while lying on back and was defined as Explosive arm strength.

Table 4

Factors correlations

(Pearsonís correlation - the lower triangle, the statistical significance - the upper triangle)

FACTORS

1.

2.

3.

1. Static and repetitive strength

.565

.166

2. Explosive leg strength

-.048

.000

3. Explosive arm strength

.114

-.735

By observing the Table 4 we can notice that there is statistically significance at the level

of p = 0.000 between the second and third factor, Explosive leg strength and Explosive arm

strength, suggesting that this is actually the one factor that is separated in two by a topological

criterion. Also, this would mean that, in the case of continuing of factor analysis, entering the

second-order factors, probably only one major component would be extracted ñ the strength. For

this reason, factor analysis was completed in the space of first order.

46

Anthropometric characteristics and strength in students

Table 5

Results of cannonical correlation analysis

Latent variables of strength

CV1s

CV2s

CV3s

Static and repetitive strength

.399

.320

-.859

Explosive leg strength

-.126

.931

.343

Explosive arm strength

.738

-.674

-.041

Anthropometric variables

CV1a

CV2a

CV3a

Body height

-.297

.530

.664

Arm length

-.237

.621

.382

Leg length

-.212

.519

.531

Ankle diameter

-.437

.167

.208

Knee joint diameter

-.532

.166

.248

Width of the pelvis

-.290

.274

.296

Body weight

-.918

.131

.306

Chest circumference, middle

-.800

.166

-.036

Circumference of stretched upper arm

-.805

.108

-.281

Circumference of bent upper arm

-.757

.292

-.329

Upper leg circumference

-.807

-.215

.277

Lower leg circumference

-.663

-.085

.319

Back skin fold

-.660

-.326

.085

Triceps skin fold

-.520

-.492

.111

Abdominal skin fold

-.606

-.392

.184

Upper leg skin fold

-.476

-.574

.012

Lower leg skin fold

-.514

-.457

-.019

Ò

.780

.701

.473

Ò²

.609

.492

.224

F

.154

.395

.776

p

.000

.000

.003

Legend: Ò ñ variance, Ò² - common variance of two canonical factors, F ñ Wilkís lambda, p ñ significance

By using canonical correlation analysis (Table 5) three statistically significant canonical

correlations were extracted.

The first statistically significant canonical correlation from the area of strength was the

Explosive arm strength, which is negatively correlated with all anthropometric variables, and

especially with all the variables that hypothetically estimated Body volume and weight and

Subcutaneous fat tissue. Within Transversal dimension of skeleton it is negatively correlated

with the Diameter of knee joint and Ankle diameter.

Through overlapping analysis (Table 6) it can be noted that many variables of strength

affect the anthropometric variables.

47

M. Cvetkovi„ et al.

Table 6

Overlapping analysis

Latent variables of strength

Anthropometric set

Û²

Ó

·

Û²

Ó

·

.719

.089

-.586

6.106

.133

.888

1.423

.115

.446

2.302

.033

.601

.858

.014

-.248

1.575

.005

.388

Legend: Û² ñ variance, Ó ñ redundancy index, · ñ reliability of canonical variable (canonical factor)

The second canonical correlation of strength area incorporated Explosive leg strength,

which is negatively correlated with subcutaneous fat accumulated on the upper leg and triceps,

and positively correlated with measures of longitudinal dimensionality of the skeleton. This

correlation is better explained through the set on the right side, so there is a greater influence of

anthropometry on explosive leg strength than the other way around.

The third canonical pair from strength area are Static and repetitive strength of arm and to

a lesser degree of trunk and Body height and Leg length from the set on the right side. There is

an evident negative correlation within the set and also a greater influence of anthropometric

variables on the Static and repetitive strength than vice versa.

Discussion

By application of factor analysis in this study three latent dimensions of strength were

extracted: static and repetitive strength, mainly of arms, and to a lesser degree of trunk, explosive

leg strength and explosive arm strength. Using canonical correlation analysis the following three

statistically significant canonical correlations were extracted.

First, itís the explosive arm strength that is negatively correlated with all anthropometric

variables. Obtained results are logical because the larger volume, mass, diameters of joints, and

especially the more subcutaneous fat, limit or even significantly reduce the expression of speed,

and thus the explosiveness, of any movement.

Second itís the explosive leg strength, which is negatively correlated with subcutaneous

fat tissue on the upper leg and triceps, and positively correlated with measures of longitudinal

skeleton dimensionality. This is understandable because it is expected that longer leverages, that

is limbs, also provide longer jumps, through which this latent ability was estimated.

Third itís static and dynamic strengths of arm (and slightly less of trunk) that are

negatively correlated with body height and leg length. This obtained canonical pair is logical

because the bigger longitudinality of skeleton causes the bigger mass, which in turn makes it

difficult to maintain or repeat movement on the long run.

The results of this study suggest an optimal and effective use of motor tests and

anthropometric measures to monitor a training effects while studying in the Faculty of Sport and

Physical Education.

48

Anthropometric characteristics and strength in students

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Submitted 8 April, 2011

Accepted 15 June, 2011

49