Damjan Jakšić • Jovana Trbojević Jocić • Stefan Maričić • Bülent Okan Miçooğulları
Given that anxiety is a significant individual disposition that affects sports performance, this study aimed to verify the latent variables obtained by the State – Trait Anxiety Inventory X-2, and to compare the obtained factor solutions with the proposed model of latent variables. The second aim refers to the presentation of the results of the questionnaire State – Trait Anxiety Inventory X-2 answered by Serbian male and female handball players. The research was conducted on a sample of 170 respondents, 99 male and 71 female handball players, aged 14 to 39 years (average age = 21.9) with an average handball playing career of 9.39 years. Towards the end of 2019, the respondents filled in the above-mentioned questionnaire used to assess anxiety as a personality trait. Exploratory factor analysis with certain modifications of the algorithm was applied to determine accurately latent space. The overall analysis was performed using the R statistical package. Four factors were selected based on the conducted factor analysis of the latent space of the questionnaire. Ten, five, three and two items are projected on the first, second, third and fourth factor respectively. Since internal reliability of the fourth factor was 0.394 it was excluded from further consideration and interpretation. The achieved scores on four separate factors show that Serbian male and female handball players achieve average results on the first (Presence of Trait anxiety) and the third factor (Absence of proactivity), while they achieve scores above the average on the second factor (Positive affect). In order to examine the sex differences between the examined variables, a one-way analysis of variance was performed. The findings show that there is no statistically significant difference on all three factors between the scores achieved by male and female handball players. A statistically significant difference between handball players of different competitive ranks appeared only on the Positive affect factor between the top athletes and the athletes in the second league (p = .04).
Keywords: anxiety • handball players • STAI questionnaire • gender differences.
Andrade, L., Gorenstein, C., Tung, T., & Vieira Filho, A. H. (2001). Psychometric Properties of the Portuguese Version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Applied to College Students: Factor Analysis and Relation to the Beck Depression Inventory. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 367-374.
Behzadi, F., Hamzei, M., Nori, S., & Salehian, M. H. (2011). The Relationship Between Goal Orientation and Competitive Anxiety in Individual and Team Athletes Fields. Scholars Research Library, 261-268.
Correia, M., & Rosado, A. (2019). Anxiety in Athletes: Gender and Type of Sport Differences. International Journal of Psychological Research, 9-17.
Fonseco-Pedrero, E., Paino, M., Sierra-Baigrie, S., Lemos-Giraldez, & Muniz, J. (2012). Propiedades Psicometricas del “Cuestionario de Ansiedad Estado-Rasgo” (Stai) en Universitarios. Behavioral Psychology / Psicologia Conductal, 547-561.
Giacobbi, P. J., & Weinberg, R. S. (2000). An Examination of Coping in Sport: Individual Trait Anxiety and Situational Consistency. The Sport Psychologist, 42-62.
Johnson, U., Ekengren, J., & Andersen, M. B. (2005). Injury Prevention in Sweden: Helping Soccer Players at Risk. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 32-38.
Keedwell, P., & Snaith, R. P. (1996). What do Anxiety Scales Measure? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 177-180.
Lavallee, D., Kremer, J., Moran, A. P., & Williams, M. (2004). Sport Psychology; Contemporary Themes. Hampshire and New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
Lonner, W. J., & Ibrahim, F. A. (1989). Assessment in Cross-cultural counseling. U P. B. Pedersen, J. G. Draguns, W. J. Lonner, & J. E. Trimble, Counseling Across Cultures (str. 299-333). Honolulu: HI: University of Hawaii Press.
Martens, R. (1977). Sport Competition Anxiety Test. Champaign: IL: Human Kinetics.
Martens, R., Vealey, R. S., & Burton, D. (1990). Competitive Anxiety in Sport. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics.
Pacesova, P., Šmela, P., & Kraček, S. (2019). Personal Well-being as Part of the Quality of Life: Is There a Difference in the Personal Well-being of Women and Men with Higher Level of Anxiety Trait Regarding their Sport Activity? Physical Activity Review, 201-208.
Patsiaouras, A., Papanikolaou, Z., Haritonidis, K., Nikolaidis, D., & Keramidas, P. (2008). The Use of the Person-centered Approach for the Reduction of the State-Trait Anxiety in Volleyball Players. Athletic Insight: Online Journal of Sport Psychology, 10.
Petrovic, J., & Trbojevic, J. (2020). Psihologija sporta. Novi Sad: Filozofski fakultet.
Rice, S., Gwyther, K., Santesteban-Echarri, O., Baron, D., Gorczynski, P., Gouttebarge, V., . . . Purcell, R. (2019). Determinants of Anxiety in Elite Athletes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 722-730.
Schaal, K., Tafflet, M., Nassif, H., Thibault, V., Pichard, C., Alcotte, M., . . . Toussaint, J.-F. (2011). Psychological Balance in High Level Athletes: Gender-Based Differences and Sport-Specific Patterns. PLoS ONE, e1907.
Seok, C. B., Hamid, H. S., Mutang, J. A., & Ismail, R. (2018). Psychometric Properties of the State-Trait Anxiety (Form Y) among Malaysian University Students. Sustainability, 10, 3311; doi:10.3390/su10093311.
Smith, R. E., Smoll, F. L., & Passer, M. W. (2002). Sport Performance Anxiety in Children and Youth. U F. L. Smoll, & R. E. Smith, Children and Youth in Sport (str. 501-536). Dubuque: IA: Kendall-Hunt.
Somers, J. M., Goldner, E. M., Waraich, P., & Hsu, L. (2006). Prevalence and Incidence Studies of Anxiety Disorders: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 100-113.
Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. E. (1970). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Spielberger, C. D., Vagg, P. R., Barker, L. R., Donham, G. W., & Westberry, L. G. (1980). The Factor Structure of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. U I. G. Sarason, & C. D. Spielberger, Stress and Anxiety. Washington, DC, USA: Hemisphere.
Wilson, M. R., Wood, G., & Vine, S. J. (2009). Anxiety, Attentional Control, and Performance Impairment in Penalty Kicks. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 761-775.
Woodman, T., & Hardy, L. (2003). The Relative Impact of Cognitive Anxiety and Self-confidence upon Sport Performance: A Meta-analysis. Journal of Sports Sciences, 443-457.