Personality traits and gender effect on athletes and non-athletes selfhandicapping strategies over time

Nikola Prpa


Abstract

The aim of this research was to examine differences in the use of self-handicapping strategies in athletes and non-athletes, changes in self-handicapping strategies that can occur with the approach of an important event, and the relationships between these strategies and personality traits, gender, and some external criteria such as performance. The sample included 183 subjects (mean age 21.16 years) consisting of 102 non-athletes and 81 athletes. Three questionnaires were used: VP+2, for measuring personality dimensions of seven-factor model, SH-17, for the assessment of changes in the use of self-handicapping strategies through time and a general biographical questionnaire. A general linear model for repeated measures was used for data analysis. Significant correlation was found between self-handicapping strategies and the number of medals and awards won at international and domestic competitions. The results also showed a positive correlation between self-handicapping strategies and dimensions of Neuroticism and Extraversion and negative with Conscientiousness. Also, a statistically significant difference in the use of self-handicapping strategies was found between athletes and non-athletes, showing that non-athletes express more self-handicapping behaviour. The results indicate that the frequency of selfhandicapping behaviour does not change through time. The effect of gender on self-handicapping is not significant, but there was a statistically significant interaction effect of gender and population on self-handicapping behaviour. It indicates that male non-athletes are more prone to self-handicapping 10 days before an important competition (exam or public speaking for general population, or “game of the season” for sporting population) compared to male athletes. These results, apart from the gender differences, are consistent with the results of previous studies. Limitations of this research and possible directions for future studies were also considered.

Keywords self-handicapping strategy•general linear model•seven-factor personality model•

 



References

 Arkin, R.M., & Baumgardner, A.H. (1985). Selfhandicapping. In J.H. Harvey & Weary (Eds.), Attribution: Basic issues and applications (pp. 169- 202). Orlando, FL: Academic Press. Bailis, D. S. (2001). Benefits of self-handicapping in sport: A field study of university athletes. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 33, 213–223. doi:10.1037/h0087143 Baumeister, R. F., Kahn, J., & Tice, D. M. (1990). Obesity as a self-handicapping strategy: Personality, selective attribution of problems, and weight loss. The Journal of social psychology, 130, 121–123. Berglas, S., & Jones, E. E. (1978). Drug choice as a selfhandicapping strategy in response to noncontingent success. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 405–417. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.36.4.405 Čolović, P., Smederevac, S., & Mitrović, D. (2009). Osobine ličnosti, starost i pol kao prediktori sklonosti ka samohendikepiranju. Psihologija, 42, 549-566. Čolović, P., Smederevac, S., & Mitrović, D. (2014). Velikih pet plus dva: validacija skraćene verzije. Primenjena psihologija, 7(3-1), 227-254. Cox, R., Peranović, M., & Škevin, V. (2005). Psihologija sporta: Sports Psychology: concepti i primjene. Coudevylle, G. R., Gernigon, C., & Martin Ginis, K. A. (2011). Self-esteem, self-confidence, anxiety and claimed self-handicapping: A mediational analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12, 670–675. Coudevylle, G. R., Ginis, K. M., & Famose, J.-P. (2008). Determinants of Self-Handicapping Strategies in Sport and Their Effects on Athletic Performance. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 36, 391–398. Deppe, R. K., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (1996). Selfhandicapping and intrinsic motivation: Buffering intrinsic motivation from the threat of failure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 868. Ferrari, J. R., & Tice, D. M. (2000). Procrastination as a self-handicap for men and women: A task-avoidance strategy in a laboratory setting. Journal of Research in personality, 34(1), 73-83. Finez, L., & Sherman, D. K. (2012). Train in vain: The role of the self in claimed self-handicapping strategies. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 34(5), 600- 620. Higgins, R. L., Snyder, C. R., & Berglas, S. (1990). Self- Handicapping: The Paradox That Isn’t. Plenum, New York. Hirt, E. R., Deppe, R.K, & Gordon, L.J. (1991). Self- Reported Versus Behavioral Self-Handicapping: Empirical Evidence for a Theoretical Distinction. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 61, 981. Hobden, K., & Pliner, P. (1995). Self-handicapping and dimensions of perfectionism: Self-presentation vs selfprotection. Journal of Research in Personality, 29(4), 461-474. Johnson, J. L., & Bloom, A. M. (1995). An analysis of the contribution of the five factors of personality to variance in academic procrastination. Personality and Individual Differences, 18(1), 127-133. Jones, E. E., & Rhodewalt, F. (1982). The Self- Handicapping Scale. Princeton: Department of Psychology, Princeton University. Kolditz, T. A., & Arkin, R. M. (1982). An impression management interpretation of the self-handicapping strategy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 492–502. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.43.3.492 Kuczka, K. K., & Treasure, D. C. (2005). Selfhandicapping in competitive sport: Influence of the motivational climate, self-efficacy, and perceived importance. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 6, 539– 550. Leary, M. R., & Shepperd, J. A. (1986). Behavioral selfhandicaps versus self-reported handicaps: A conceptual note. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1265–1268. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1265 Martin, K. A., & Brawley, L. R. (1999). Is the Self- Handicapping Scale reliable in non-academic achievement domains? Personality and Individual Differences, 27, 901–911. doi:10.1016/S0191- 8869(99)00039-2 Martin, K. A., & Brawley, L. R. (2002). Self-handicapping in physical achievement settings: The contributions of self-esteem and self-efficacy. Self and Identity, 1, 337– 351. McCrea, S. M., Hirt, E. R., Hendrix, K. L., Milner, B. J., & Steele, N. L. (2008). The worker scale: Developing a measure to explain gender differences in behavioral self-handicapping. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 949–970. McCrea, S. M., Hirt, E. R., & Milner, B. J. (2008). She works hard for the money: Valuing effort underlies gender differences in behavioral self-handicapping. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 292– 311. Nićin, M. (2010). Relacije koncepta emocionalne inteligencije i samohendikepirajućih strategija. Diplomski rad, Novi Sad: Filozofski fakultet. Prapavessis, H., Grove, J. R., & Eklund, R. C. (2004). Selfpresentational issues in competition and sport. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 16, 19-40. Prpa, N. (2013). Upitnik sa opštim biografskim podacima. Nepublikovan materijal, Novi Sad: Filozofski fakultet. Prpa, N., Smederevac, S. i Čolović, P. (2013). Upitnik SH- 17 za procenu korišćenja strategija samohendikepiranja kroz vreme. Nepublikovan materijal, Novi Sad: Filozofski fakultet. Pulford, B. D., Johnson, A., &Awaida, M. (2005). A crosscultural study of predictors of self-handicapping in university students. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 727–737. Pyszczynski, T., & Greenberg, J. (1983). Determinants of reduction of intended effort as a strategy for coping with anticipated failure. Journal of Research in Personality, 17, 412-422. Rhodewalt, F., Saltzman, A. T., & Wittmer, J. (1984). Selfhandicapping among competitive athletes: The role of practice in self-esteem protection. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 5, 197–209. Ryska, T. A., Yin, Z., & Cooley, D. (1998). Effects of trait and situational self-handicapping on competitive anxiety among athletes. Current Psychology, 17, 48– 56. Schouwenburg, H. C., & Lay, C. H. (1995). Trait procrastination and the big-five factors of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 18(4), 481- 490. Seligman, M. E. P., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Thorton, N., & Thornton, K. M. (1990). Explanatory Style as a Mechanism of Disappointing Athletic Performance. Psychological Science (Wiley-Blackwell), 1, 143–146. Smith, J. L., Hardy, T., & Arkin, R. (2009). When practice doesn’t make perfect: Effort expenditure as an active behavioral self-handicapping strategy. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(1), 95-98. Smith, T. W., Snyder, C. R., & Perkins, S. C. (1983). The self-serving function of hypochondriacal complaints: Physical symptoms as self-handicapping strategies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 787– 797. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.44.4.787 Tice, D. M. (1991). Esteem protection or enhancement? Self-handicapping motives and attributions differ by trait self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 711. Urdan, T., & Midgley, C. (2001). Academic selfhandicapping: What we know, what more there is to learn. Educational Psychology Review, 13, 115–138. Weary, G., & Williams, J. P. (1990). Depressive selfpresentation: beyond self-handicapping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 892–898. Zuckerman, M., Kieffer, S. C., & Knee, C. R. (1998). Consequences of self-handicapping: Effects on coping, academic performance, and adjustment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(6), 1619.