The goal of this research was to test whether and to what extent mental toughness contribute to the explanation of state anxiety in athletes. This study relied on a multidimensional construct of anxiety which includes somatic and cognitive anxiety. Dimensions of anxiety were measured with “Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2” (cognitive and somatic anxiety), and mental toughness was measured with “Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire”. The research sample consisted of 117 athletes, 67 men and 50 women, who have been actively engaged in various competitive sports. The structure of the sample by age was: 64 athletes are from 20 to 25 years old; 19 respondents aged 25 to 30; 31 athletes aged 30 to 35; and 4 respondents are over 35 years old. The results showed statistically significant correlations between dimensions and overall mental toughness on the one hand and cognitive anxiety and somatic anxiety on the other. Multiple regression analysis was conducted with the aim of predicting the dimensions of anxiety based on mental toughness. Based on the dimensions of mental toughness, 25% of the variability of cognitive anxiety and 22% of somatic anxiety were explained. Self-confidence as a dimension of mental strength is a predictor of all dimensions of the state of anxiety. This study has indicated a great significance of developing athletes’ mental toughness with the goal of reducing anxiety and achieving better performance in competitions.
Keywords: mental toughness • cognitive anxiety • somatic anxiety • self-confidence • athletes.
Algani, P., Yuniardi, M., Masturah, N. (2018). Mental Toughness Dan Competitive Anxiety Pada Atlet Bola Voli. Journal Imiah Psikologi Terapan, 6(1), 93-101. https://doi.org/10.22219/jipt.v6i1.5433
Baker, J., Côté, J., Deakin, J. (2005). Cognitive characteristics of expert, middle of the pack, and back of the pack ultra-endurance triathletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 6, 551–558. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2004.04.005
Connaughton, D., Hanton, S. (2009). Chapter 2- Mental toughness in sport: conceptual and practical issues: Chapter taken from Advances in Applied Sport Psychology, ISBN 9780415577021 Routledge (pp. 221-250)
Cowden, R., Fuller, D., Anshel, M. (2014). Psychological Predictors of Mental Toughness in Elite Tennis: An Exploratory Study in Learned Resourcefulness and Competitive Trait Anxiety. Perceptual & Motor Skills: Exercise & Sport, 119 (3), 661-678. https://doi.org/10.2466/30.PMS.119c27z0
Creasy, J., Stratton, R., Maina, M., Rearick, M., Reincke, K. (2008). Mental toughness in sports. Coach and Athletic Director, 77(9), 30-41.
Crust, L., Clough, P. J. (2011). Developing mental toughness: From research to practice. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 2(1), 21-32. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/21520704.2011.563436
Dal, N. (2018).The Big Five Personality Traits and Narcissism as the Predictors of Anxiety and Confidence before Archery Class Final Exam. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 6(12), 2875-2879. https://doi.org/ 10.13189/ujer.2018.061222
Galli, N., Gonzalez, S. (2005). Psychological resilience in sport: A review of the literature and implications for research and practice. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 13, 243–257. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2014.946947
Goldberg, A. S. (2005). Sports slump busting: 10 steps to mental toughness and peak performance. Llumina Press.
Gómez-López, M., Borrego, C., da Silva, C., Granero-Gallegos, A., González-Hernández, J. (2020). Effects of motivational climate on fear of failure and anxiety in teen handball players. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17, 592-602. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020592
Gucciardi, D., Hanton, S., Gordon, S., Mallett, C., Temby, P. (2014). The Concept of Mental Toughness: Tests of Dimensionality, Nomological Network and Traitness. Journal of personality, 83(1) 26-44. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12079
Gucciardi, D., Stamatis, A., Ntoumanis, N. (2017). Controlling coaching and athlete thriving in elite adolescent netballers: the buffering effect of athletes’ mental toughness. Journal of science and medicine in sport, 20, 718–722. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2017.02.007
Hossein, A., Mohd, R., Soumendra, S., Anwar, H., Muzaimi, M. (2016). Relationship Between Mental Toughness and Trait Anxiety in Sports. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 7(3), 275-281.
Jakšić, D., Trbojević, Jocić, J., Maričić, S., Miçooğulları, B. (2020). Psychometric properties of a Serbian version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory X-2. EQOL Journal, 12(2), 13-22, https://doi: 10.31382/eqol.201202
Kalinin, R., Balázsi, R., Péntek, I., Duică, S., Hanțiu, I. (2019). Relationship between competitive anxiety and mental toughness: a latent regression analysis. Health, sport, rehabilitation medicine, 20 (2), 70-74. https://doi.org/10.26659/pm3.2019.20.2.70
Lazarević, Lj. (2003). Psihološka priprema sportista. Viša škola za sportske trenere.
Mann, A., Singh, G., Hooda, H. (2018). Mental toughness and competitive anxiety between high and low performer’s football players. International Journal of Physiology, Nutrition and Physical Education, 3(1), 938-941.
Martens, R., Burton, D., Vealey, R. S., Bump, L., Smith, D. (1990). Chapter 2-Development and validation of the competitive state anxiety inventory-2: Chapter taken from Competitive Anxiety in Sport, ISBN: 978-0873222648. Human Kinetics (pp. 117–190).
Micoogullari, B. O., Odek, U., Beyaz, O. (2017). Evaluation of sport mental toughness and psychological wellbeing in undergraduate student athletes, Educational Research and Reviews, 12(8), 483-487. https://doi.org/10.5897/ERR2017.3216
Miftakhul, J., Lina H., Nabila, N., Widohardhono, R. (2018). Anxiety and Mental Toughness Among Athlete Students., Paper presented at the conference on Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Education Innovation (ICEI 2018), Retrieved May, 25 2021, from https://doi.org/10.2991/icei-18.2018.119
Muhammad, N., Khan, M., Khan, W. (2020). Effect of different types of Anxiety on Athletes Performance; Planning and Managing Strategy to cope with Athletes’ Anxiety, City University Research Journal, 10 (3), 473-481
Neves, A., Barbosa, F., Da Silva, M., Brandão, M., Zanetti, M. (2018). Confirmatory factor analysis of the Brief Resilience Scale for Brazilian athletes. Cuadernos de Psicologia del Deporte, 18, 103–110.
Petrovic, J., & Trbojevic, J. (2020). Psihologija sporta. Novi Sad: Filozofski fakultet.
Pineda-Espejel, A., López-Walle, J., Rodríguez, J., Villanueva, M., Gurrola, O. (2011). Pre-competitive Anxiety and Self-confidence in Pan American Gymnasts. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 5(1), 39–48.
Rasyid, N., Lee, J., Nadzalan A., Tengah, R. (2019). Relationship Between Mental Toughness, Sports Competition Anxiety and Performance among Women’s Hockey Team. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 362, 23-38. https://doi.org/10.2991/acpes-19.2019.21
Schaefer, J, Vella, S., Allen, S., Magee, A. (2016). Competition Anxiety, Motivation, and Mental Toughness in Golf. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 28(3), 309-320. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2016.1162219
Sheard, M., Golby, J., van Wersch, A. (2009). Progress toward construct validation of the sports mental toughness questionnaire (SMTQ). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 25, 186–193. https://doi: 10.1027/1015-57184.108.40.206
Tahmasebi, B., Mirheydari, S., Kaviri, Z., Shaheini, S. (2012). The Survey of Relationship and Comparison: Emotional Intelligence, Competitive Anxiety and Mental Toughness Female Super League Basketball Players. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 1440-1444. https://doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.05.317.
Zeiger, S., Zeiger R. (2018). Mental toughness latent profiles in endurance athletes. PLoS ONE, 13(2), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0193071
Stamatakis, E., Primatesta, P., Chinn, S., Rona, R., Falascheti, E. (2005). Overweight and obesity trends from 1974 to 2003 in English children: what is the role of socioeconomic factors? Arch Dis Child, 90(10), 999–1004.
Taveras, E.M., Gillman, M.W., Kleinman, K., Rich-Edwards, J.W. &Rifas-Shiman SL. (2010). Racial/ethnic differences in early-life risk factors for childhood obesity. Pediatrics, 125, 686–95.
Vereecken, C.A. &Maes, L. (2006). Television viewing and food consumption in Flemish adolescents in Belgium. SozPraventivmed, 51(5), 311-317.
Vereecken, C.A., Keukelier, E. &Maes, L. (2004). Influence of mother’s educational level on food parenting practices and food habits of young children. Appetite, 43(1), 93-103.
Wachs, T.D., Creed-Kanashiro, H., Cueto, S. & Jacoby, E. (2005). Maternal education and intelligence predict oﬀspring diet and nutritional status. Journal of Nutrition, 135(9), 2179–86.
World Health Organization. (2014). 10 facts on physical activity.Global Strategy on Diet, Physical activity & Health. WHO African Region Retrieved from www.who.int/topic/physical-activity/en/?
Youngson. R. M. (2004). Collins Dictionary of Medicine. Retrieved from www.reference on youngson2 on Amazoo.com.