Aleksandra Aleksić-Veljković*, Dejan Madić, Mila Vukadinović
Faculty of Sport and physical education, Novi Sad, Serbia
Katarina Herodek
Faculty of Sport and physical education, Niš, Serbia
Kamenka Živčić Marković, Aida Badić
Faculty of Kinesiology University of Zagreb, Zagreb


The aim of the study was to give more informations about jumping abilities of young
female gymnasts. We examine age-related differences in some variables of counter-movement
jump (CMJ) and counter-movement jump with arm swing (CMJA), between two age categories
of young female gymnasts (n=47) and also reliability of testing vertical jump in gymnasts. The
study was conducted on an international competition. Our research has shown that age-related
differences were observed only in height of the jumps, but not in power output of both jumps and
displacement of depth of body’s center of gravity. Jumping capabilities are crucial in gymnastics
in all levels of competitions and in all categories of gymnasts. Testing and periodical monitoring
of young athletes’ abilities are important for defining the training programmes adapted to the
needs of gymnastics and the age of the gymnasts.

Keywords: Artistic gymnastics, explosive leg power, counter-movement jump.

Albuqerque, P.A. & Farinatti, P.T.V. (2007). Development and validation of a new system for
talent selection in female artistic gymnastics: the PDGO Battery. Revista Brasiliera de
Medicina de Esporte, 13 (3), 139e-145e.
Buśko, K., Michalski, R., Mazur, J., Gajewski, J. (2012). Jumping abilities in elite female volleyball
players: comparative analysis among age categories. Biology of Sport, 29(4), 317-319.
Carrick, F. R., Oggero, E., Pagnacco, G., et al. (2007). Posturographic testing and motor learning
predictability in gymnasts. Disability Rehabilitation, 29 (24), 1881-1889.
Cuk, I., Korencic, T.; Tomazo-Ravnik, T.; Pecek, M.; Bucar, M. & Hraski, Z. (2007).
Differencies in morphologic characteristics between top level gymnasts of year 1933 and
2000. Collеgium Antropologicum, 31, 613-9.
French, D.N., Gómez, A.L., Volek, J.S., Rubin, M.R., Ratamess, N.A., Sharman, M.J., Gotshalk,
L.A., Sebastianelli, W.J., Putukian, M., Newton, R.U., Häkkinen, K., Fleck, S.J. and
Kraemer, W.J. (2004). Longitudinal tracking of muscular power changes of NCAA division
I collegiate women gymnasts. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Researches, 18(1),
Gerodimos, V., Zafeiridis, A., Perkos, S., Dipl, K., Manou, V., Kellis S. (2008). The contribution
of stretch-shortening cycle and arm-swing to vertical jumping performance in children,
adolescents, and adult basketball players. Pediatric Exercise Science; 20, 379-389.
Hara, M., Shibayama, A., Takeshita, D., Hay, D. C., & Fukashiro, S. (2008). A comparison of the
mechanical effect of arm swing and countermovement on the lower extremities in vertical
jumping. Human Movement Science, 27(4), 636-648.
Jumping abilities in young female gymnasts
Kinser, A. M., Ramsey, M. W., O'Bryant, H. S., Ayres, C. A., Sands, W. A., & Stone, M.
H. (2008). Vibration and stretching effects on flexibility and explosive strength in young
gymnasts. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 40(1), 133-140.
Kums, T., Ereline, J., Gapeyeva, H., & Paasuke, M. (2005). Vertical jumping performance in
young rhythmic gymnasts. Biology of Sport, 22(3), 237-246.
Kums, T. (2008). Musculo-skeletal function in young gymnasts: associations with training loads
and low-back pain. Tartu: Faculty of exercise and sport sciences.
Marina, M., Jemni, M., Rodríguez, F.J. (2013). Jumping performance profile of male and female
gymnasts. Sports Med Phys Fitness, 53(4), 378-86.
Marina, M. & Torrado, P. (2013). Does gymnastics practice inprove vertical jump reliability from
the age of 8 to 10 years? Journal of sport sciences, 31(11), 1177-86.
Mkaouer, B., Jemni, M., Amara, S., Chaabèn, H., & Tabka, Z. (2011). Kinematic and kinetic
analysis of counter movement jump versus two different types of standing back somersault.
Science of Gymnastics Journal, 4(3), 61-71.
Powers, S. K., & Howley, E. T. (2004). Exercise Physiology: Theory and Application to Fitness
and Performance. Ed Human Kinetics Pub Champaign (Vol. 4, p. 648).
Psycharakis, S. G., & Miller, S. (2006). Estimation of errors in force platform data. Research
quarterly for exercise and sport, 77(4), 514-518.
Ricotti, L. (2011). Static and dynamic balance in young athletes. Journal of Human Sport and
Exercise, 6, (4), 616-628.
Smith, D.J., Roberts, D., Watson, B. (1992). Physical, physiological and performance differences
between Canadian national team and universiade volleyball players. Journal of Sports
Sciences, 10, 131-138.
Sterkowicz, S., Lech, G., Chwała, W., Ambroży, T., Jaworski, J., & Kłys, A. (2011). Muscle
strength in young judo contestants vs. untrained subjects. Archives of Budo, 7(3), 179-184.
Temfemo, A., Hugues, J., Chardon, K., Mandengue, S. H., & Ahmaidi, S. (2009). Relationship
between vertical jumping performance and anthropometric characteristics during growth in
boys and girls. European Journal of Pediatrics, 168(4), 457-464.
Theodoropolou, A., Markou, K.B., Vagenakis, G.A., Benardot, D., Leglise, M., Kourounis, G.,
Vagenakis, A.G., Georgopoulos, N.A. (2005). Delayed but Normally Progressed Puberty Is
More Pronounced in Artistic Compared with Rhythmic Elite Gymnasts Due to the Intensity
of Training. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 90(11), 6022-6027.
Walsh, M. S., Böhm, H., Butterfield, M. M., & Santhosam, J. (2007). Gender bias in the effects
of arms and countermovement on jumping performance. Journal of strength and
conditioning research, 21(2), 362-366.
Waples, S. (2003). Psychological characteristics of elite and non-elite level gymnasts.
Washington: Washington State University.