Effects of invasion games on physical fitness in primary school children

Irena Valantine • Dejan Madic • Goran Sporis


Abstract

Studies concerning the effects of different invasion games on physical fitness in school children are scarce. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the application of invasion games on physical fitness in primary school children. A total of 62 primary school children aged 10-12 years voluntarily participated in this study. They were divided into experimental (32) and control (30) group. Physical fitness of children was estimated by the following tests: Standing broad jump, Vertical jump, Bent-arm hang, Sit-ups, Pushups, Medicine ball test and Andersen test. The experimental group had twice per week invasion games on non-consecutive days for 12 weeks. Participants in control group did not perform specific program but attended their regular PE class twice per week. Compared with initial measurement, there was a significant (p < 0.05) improvement in vertical jump test for both groups. Furthermore, the group that participated in the invasion games program made significantly greater gains compared to the control group (p < 0.05) in Standing broad jump (8.2%; ES=0.56 vs. 3%; ES=0.2) and Medicine ball test (8.2%; ES=0.6 vs. 3%; ES=0.3). There was a significant improvement in bent arm hang, sit ups and push-ups in experimental group. Compared with initial measurement, there was a significant (p < 0.05) improvement in Andersen test in invasion games group, which was not the case with control group (p>0.05). To conclude, invasion games were an effective way of improving physical fitness in primary school children, because the results of this study indicate that this method was more effective for physical fitness than traditional school program.

Keywords invasion games• teaching•effects •children



References

Adeniran, S. A., & Toriola, A. L. (1988). Effects of continuous and internal running programs on aerobic and anaerobic capacities in schoolgirls aged 13 to 17 years. Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 28(3), 260-266. Allison, S., & Thorpe, R. (1997). A comparison of the effectiveness of two approaches to teaching games within physical education. A skills approach versus agames for understanding approach. British Journal of Physical Education, 28(3), 9-13. Andersen, L. B., Andersen, T. E., Andersen, E., & Anderssen, S. A. (2008). An intermittent running test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake: The Andersen test. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 48(4), 434. Bala, G., Krneta, Ž., & Katić, R. (2010). Effects of kindergarten period on school readiness and motor abilities. Collegium Antropologicum, 34(1), 61-67. Baquet, G., Berthoin, S., Gerbeaux, M., & Van Praagh, E. (2001). High-intensity aerobic training during a 10 week one-hour physical education cycle: effects on physical fitness of adolescents aged 11 to 16. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 22(4), 295- 300. Belka, D. E. (2004). Combining and sequencing games skills. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 75(4), 23-27. Broek, G., Boen, F., Claessens, M., Feys, J., & Ceux, T. (2011). Comparison of three instructional approaches to enhance tactical knowledge in volleyball among university students. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 30(4), 375-392. Castro-Piñero, J., González-Montesinos, J. L., Mora, J., Keating, X. D., Girela-Rejón, M. J., Sjöström, M., & Ruiz, J. R. (2009). Percentile values for muscular strength field tests in children aged 6 to 17 years: influence of weight status. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 23(8), 2295-2310. Chevrier, J., Roy, M., Turcotte, S., Culver, D. M., & Cybulski, S. (2016). Skills trained by coaches of Canadian male volleyball teams: A comparison with long-term athlete development guidelines. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 11(3), 410-421. Faigenbaum, A. D., McFarland, J. E., Keiper, F. B., Tevlin, W., Ratamess, N. A., Kang, J., & Hoffman, J. R. (2007). Effects of a short-term plyometric and resistance training program on fitness performance in boys age 12 to 15 years. Journal of Sports and Science in Medicine, 6(4), 519-525. Faigenbaum, A., & Mediate, P. (2006). Effects of Medicine ball training on physical fitness in high school physical education students. The Physical Educator, 63(3), 161- 168. Faigenbaum, A.D., Zaichkowsky, L.D., Westcott,W.L, Micheli, L.J, & Fehlandt, A.F. (1993).The effects of a twice per week strength training program on children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 5, 339-346. Gabbett, T. J. (2002). Training injuries in rugby league: an evaluation of skill-based conditioning games. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 16, 236–241. Griffin, L. L., & Butler, J. (2005). Teaching games for understanding: Theory, research, and practice. Human Kinetics. Harrison, J. M., Blakemore, C. L., Richards, R. P., & Oliver, J. (2004). The Effects of Two Instructional Models-Tactical and Skill Teaching-on Skill Development and Game Play, Knowledge, Self- Efficacy, and Student Perceptions in Volleyball. Physical Educator, 61(4), 186. Hastie, P. A., & Curtner-Smith, M. D. (2006). Influence of a hybrid Sport Education—Teaching Games for Understanding unit on one teacher and his students. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy, 11(01), 1-27. Hopkins, W., Marshall, S., Batterham, A., & Hanin, J. (2009). Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Medicine Science in Sports Exercise, 41(1), 3. Janssen, I., & LeBlanc, A. G. (2010). Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7, 40. Kirk, D. (2005) Future prospects for teaching games for understanding. In L.L. Griffin and J. Butler (Eds.), Teaching Games for Understanding: Theory, Research and Practice (pp. 213-226). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Krističević, T., Sporiš, G., Trajković, N., Penčić, N., & Ignjatović, M. (2016). Skill- based conditioning training in young female volleyball players: Impact on power and change of direction speed. Exercise and Quality of Life, 8(1), 3-12. McKenzie, T.L., Sallis, J.F., Kolody, B., & Faucette, F. (1997). Long term effects of a physical education curriculum and staff development program: SPARK. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 68, 280- 291. Metzler, M.W. (2000). Instructional Models for Physical Education. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Musch, E., Mertens, B., Timmers, E., Mertens, T., Graça, A., Taborsky, F., & Vonderlynck, V. (2002). An innovative didactical invasion games model to teach basketball and handball, presented on cd. In 7th Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science. Otto III, W. H., Coburn, J. W., Brown, L. E., & Spiering, B. A. (2012). Effects of weightlifting vs. kettlebell training on vertical jump, strength, and body composition. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 26(5), 1199-1202. Webb, P. I., & Pearson, P. J. (2008). An integrated approach to teaching games for understanding (TGfU). Ricardo, V., & Graça, A. (2008). Developing secondary school students’ competence in playing basketball: Analysis of an experimental teaching unit. In the teaching games for understanding 2008 international conference, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Rotstein, A., Dotan, R., Bar-Or, O., & Tenenbaum, G. (1986). Effect of training on anaerobic threshold, maximal aerobic power and anaerobic performance of preadolescent boys. International journal of sports medicine, 7(5), 281-286. Sheppard, J.M., Gabbett, T.J., & ReebergStanganelli, L.C. (2009). An analysis of playing positions in elite men’s volleyball: considerations for competition demands and physiologic qualities. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23(6), 1858–1866. Simons-Morton, B.G., Taylor, W., Snider, S., & Huang, I. (1993). The physical activity of fifth-grade students during physical education classes. American Journal of Public Health, 83, 262-264. Smith, J. J., Eather, N., Morgan, P. J., Plotnikoff, R. C., Faigenbaum, A. D., & Lubans, D. R. (2014). The health benefits of muscular fitness for children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports medicine, 44(9), 1209-1223. EQOL Journal (2017) 9(1): 15-22 Szymanski, D. J., Szymanski, J. M., Bradford, T. J., Schade, R. L., & Pascoe, D. D. (2007). Effect of twelve weeks of medicine ball training on high school baseball players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 21(3), 894-901. Tallir, I. B., Lenoir, M., Valcke, M., & Musch, E. (2007). Do alternative instructional approaches result in different game performance learning outcomes? Authentic assessment in varying game conditions. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 38(3), 263-282. Turner, A. P., & Martinek, T. J. (1999). An investigation into teaching games for understanding: Effects on skill, knowledge, and game play. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 70(3), 286-296. Wall, M., & Côt, J. (2007). Developmental activities that lead to dropout and investment in sport. Physical Education &Sport Pedagogy, 12(1), 77–87.