Nevena Vidović • Ana Pantović • Vuk Stevanović • Ivana Šarac • Kristina Robal • Stevan Stevanović • Maria Glibetic
The present study examined the effects of aerobic training alone or combined with chokeberry juice on membrane lipid status and activities of antioxidant enzymes in non-athlete women. Participants were randomly assigned into the training group performing aerobic training three times per week; the chokeberry-training group followed the same training regime and additionally consumed 100 ml of chokeberry juice per day and the control group neither trained nor consumed the juice.
Blood samples were collected at baseline and the end of the eight-week-long intervention. Membrane fatty acids’ composition was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography, while the activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured by spectrophotometry.
As a result, the n-3 fatty acids’ content was significantly higher in the chokeberry-training (median (interquartile range) of 5.96 (1.65) %) compared with the control group (5.12 (0.87) %), while saturated fatty acids’ content was lower in the chokeberry-training (40.14±1.19 %) than in the training group (42.59±2.29 %). We detected significantly higher activity of superoxide dismutase in the training (2224 (2170) U/gHb) compared with the chokeberry-training (1252 (734) U/gHb) and control group (1397 (475) U/gHb).
Our study indicates that supplementation with chokeberry juice may induce favorable changes in cell fatty acid composition and antioxidant response in women performing aerobic training.
Keywords: aerobic training • antioxidant enzymes • chokeberry juice • fatty acids • healthy women.
Aebi, H. (1984). Catalase in vitro. Methods in Enzymology, 105, 121–126.
Bolli, R. (2000). The late phase of preconditioning. Circulation Research 87(11), 972–983.
Broncel, M., Kozirog, M., Duchnowicz, P., Koter-Michalak, M., Sikora, J., & Chojnowska-Jezierska, J. (2010). Aronia melanocarpa extract reduces blood pressure, serum endothelin, lipid, and oxidative stress marker levels in patients with metabolic syndrome. Medical Science Monitor, 16(1), CR28–CR34.
Cikiriz, N., Milosavljevic, I., Jakovljevic, B., Bolevich, S., Jeremic, J., Nikolic Turnic, T., … Jakovljević, V. (2021). The influences of chokeberry extract supplementation on redox status and body composition in handball players during competition phase. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 99(1), 42-47.
Cristopherson, S. W., & Glass, R. L. (1969). Preparation of milk fat methyl esters by alcoholysis in an essentially nonalcoholic solution. Journal of Dairy Science, 52, 1289–1290.
Gliemann, L., Schmidt, J. F., Olesen, J., Biensø, R. S., Peronard, S. L., Grandjean, S. U., … Hellsten, Y. (2013). Resveratrol blunts the positive effects of exercise training on cardiovascular health in aged men. The Journal of Physiology, 591(20), 5047–5059.
Gurinović, M., Milešević, J., Novaković, R., Kadvan, A., Djekić-Ivanković, M., Šatalić, Z., … Glibetic, M. (2015). Improving Nutrition Surveillance and Public Health Research in Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries Using the Balkan Food Platform and Dietary Tools. Food Chemistry, 193, 173–180.
He, F., Li, J., Liu, Z., Chuang, C. C., Yang, W., & Zuo, L. (2016). Redox Mechanism of Reactive Oxygen Species in Exercise. Frontiers in Physiology, 7, 486.
Jackson, M.J. (2008). Free radicals generated by contracting muscle: by-products of metabolism or key regulators of muscle function? Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 44(2), 132–141.
Jimenez, A. G., Winward, J. D., Walsh, K. E., & Champagne, A. M. (2020). Effects of membrane fatty acid composition on cellular metabolism and oxidative stress in dermal fibroblasts from small and large breed dogs. Journal of Experimental Biology, 223(Pt 12), jeb221804.
Jung, M. E., Bourne, J. E., & Little, J. P. (2014). Where does HIT fit? An examination of the affective response to high-intensity intervals in comparison to continuous moderate- and continuous vigorous-intensity exercise in the exercise intensity-affect continuum. PLoS One, 9(12), e114541.
Kardum, N., Konić Ristić, A., Savikin, K., Spasić, S., Stefanović, A., Ivanišević, J., & Miljković, M. (2014a). Effects of polyphenol-rich chokeberry juice on antioxidant/pro-oxidant status in healthy subjects. Journal of Medicinal Food, 17(8), 869–874.
Kardum, N., Takić, M., Šavikin, K., Zec, M., Zdunić, G., Spasić, S., & Konić-Ristić, A. (2014b). Effects of polyphenol-rich chokeberry juice on cellular antioxidant enzymes and membrane lipid status in healthy women. Journal of Functional Foods, 9, 89–97.
Kardum, N., Petrović-Oggiano, G., Takic, M., Glibetić, N., Zec, M., Debeljak-Martacic J, & Konić-Ristić, A. (2014c). Effects of Glucomannan-Enriched, Aronia Juice-Based Supplement on Cellular Antioxidant Enzymes and Membrane Lipid Status in Subjects with Abdominal Obesity. Scientific World Journal, 2014, 869250.
Kim, S. R., Jeon, S. Y., & Lee, S. M. (2015). The association of cardiovascular risk factors with saturated fatty acids and fatty acid desaturase indices in erythrocyte in middle-aged Korean adults. Lipids in Health and Disease, 14, 133.
Mankowski, R. T., Anton, S. D., Buford, T. W., & Leeuwenburgh, C. (2015). Dietary Antioxidants as Modifiers of Physiologic Adaptations to Exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 47(9), 1857–1868.
Marini, M., Abruzzo, P. M., Bolotta, A., Veicsteinas, A., & Ferreri, C. (2011). Aerobic training affects fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes. Lipids in Health and Disease, 10, 188.
McAnultya, S. R., McAnultyb, L. S., Niemana, D. C., Dumkea, C. L., Morrowd, J. D., Uttera, A. C., … George, G. L. (2004). Consumption of blueberry polyphenols reduces exercise-induced oxidative stress compared to vitamin C. Nutrition Research, 24(3), 209–221.
Mozaffarian, D., & Wu, J. H. (2011). Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: effects on risk factors, molecular pathways, and clinical events. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 58(20), 2047–2067.
Panza, V. S., Wazlawik, E., Ricardo Schütz, G., Comin, L., Hecht, K. C., & da Silva, E. L. (2008). Consumption of green tea favorably affects oxidative stress markers in weight-trained men. Nutrition, 24(5), 433–442.
Petrovic, S., Arsic, A., Glibetic, M., Cikiriz, N., Jakovljevic, V., & Vucic, V. (2016). The effects of polyphenol-rich chokeberry juice on fatty acid profiles and lipid peroxidation of active handball players: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 94(10), 1058–1063.
Pilaczynska-Szczesniak, L., Skarpanska-Steinborn, A., Deskur, E., Basta, P., & Horoszkiewicz-Hassan, M. (2005). The influence of chokeberry juice supplementation on the reduction of oxidative stress resulting from an incremental rowing ergometer exercise. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 15(1), 48-58.
Piñeiro-Corrales, G., Lago Rivero, N., & Culebras-Fernández, J. M. (2013). Role of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease prevention. Nutricion Hospitalaria, 28(1), 1-5.
Ristow, M., & Zarse, K. (2010). How increased oxidative stress promotes longevity and metabolic health: The concept of mitochondrial hormesis (mitohormesis). Experimental Gerontology, 45(6), 410–418.
Rose, H.G., & Oklander, M. (1965). Improved procedure for the extraction of lipids from human erythrocytes. Journal of Lipid Research, 6, 428-431.
Simopoulos, A. P. (2008). The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Experimental Biology and Medicine (Maywood), 233(6), 674-688.
Stankiewicz, B., Cieślicka, M., Kujawski, S., Piskorska, E., Kowalik, T., Korycka, J., & Skarpańska-Stejnborn, A. (2021). Effects of antioxidant supplementation on oxidative stress balance in young footballers- a randomized double-blind trial. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 18(1), 44.
Tomić, M., Ignjatović, Đ., Tovilović-Kovačević, G., Krstić-Milošević, D., Ranković, S., Popović, T., & Glibetić, M. (2016). Reduction of anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors in rats after one month of drinking Aronia melanocarpa berry juice. Food and Function, 7(7), 3111-3120.
Van Kampen, E., & Zijlstra, W. G. (1961). Standardization of hemoglobinometry. II. The hemiglobincyanide method. Clinica Chimica Acta, 6(4), 538-544.
Williams, S. L., Strobel, N. A., Lexis, L. A., & Coombes, J. S. (2006). Antioxidant requirements of endurance athletes: implications for health. Nutrition Reviews, 64(3), 93-108.