EXERCISE AND QUALITY OF LIFE
Research article
Volume 6, No. 1, 2014, 17-22
UDC 616.711-007.5-053.5(497.113 Srem)
DIFFERENCES IN INDICATORS OF POSTURAL
STATUS BETWEEN BOYS AND GIRLS FROM SREM
Milan Kojić*
Faculty of Sport and Physical Education - University of Novi Sad
Abstract
Improper seating, various forms of activities as well as certain endogenous and exogenous
factors negatively affecting on postural status and does not lead to any body improvements. A
healthy and good posture is the basic form for properly constructed mechanics and the assumption
of good statics and dynamics of whole body. Postural status was evaluated on the sample of 833
children, aged 4-13, from the population of Preschool institution and Elementary School in Munic-
ipality of Ruma, Stara Pazova, Sremska Mitrovica and Indjija. Two anthropometric measures and
CONTEMPLAS 3D system for evaluation postural status were applied. Parameters of postural sta-
tus and trend were analysed wit basic descriptive statistics ANOVA and MANOVA. Result show
that almost 30% of all children have bad posture and there is a high number of those with weaker
body segments. Boys have better posture status than girls especially in legs deformity.
Keywords: Posture, Contemplas, Children, Gender differences
Introduction
Improper seating, various forms of activities as well as certain endogenous and exogenous
factors negatively affecting on postural status and does not lead to any body improvements. A
healthy and good posture represents a base for properly constructed mechanics and the assumption
of good statics and dynamics of the whole body. To adapt good posture in early childhood contrib-
utes to proper development, and as a result it affects overall health and quality of life. Creating a
proper posture status is of particular importance in pre-development period and the early years of
school period (Sabo, 2003). Most authors consider that the posture of the good status depends on
the health status of individuals. Disturbing the biomechanics and postural status leads to changes
in muscle, skeletal system, as well as in psychological and social status. Along with certain health
problems, aches and pains, causes of formation postural disorders among children are different:
obesity (Milosevic et al., 2007a, Milosevic et al., 2007b), malnutrition (Protic-Gava, 2008), insuf-
* Corresponding author. Bul. Arsenija Carnojevica 84 lok.4 - Novi Beograd, Serbia,
e-mail: pokretzaokret@yahoo.com
© 2014 Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia
Milan Kojić
ficient physical activity (Sallis, 2000). Such a trend in the later development of the body and life
can be a serious problem. An extremely important factor and element in the process of growth and
development is certainly physical activity. Many previous studies have talked about it in the di-
rection of development of the entire musculoskeletal system of the body. Lack of movement leads
to a disorder and that is associated with the posture status. Modern way of life and living restric-
tions reduce movements witch reflected to some problem in postural status. Hypokinesis and lack
of exercise has consequences in terms of low activation of muscles, decreased activity of the whole
body and the occurrence of deformities.
These factors certainly accelerate process and condition for develop many problems with
postural status and body mechanics. One particular part of the deformity and disorder is definitely
determined by genetic but the trend of increasing the number of postural disorders which are as-
sociated with other factors. Thus, different endogenous and exogenous elements can act and cre-
ate an unfavourable presumption of continuing develop of deformity of different body segments.
However, active movement has the most important role in the formation and maintenance of prop-
er body posture. The weakness of certain muscle groups, and their excessive workloads, can cause
a variety of disorders of the spine, thorax, upper or lower extremities, especially the feet. Extreme-
ly bad habits and conditions lead to inactivity of different muscle group and inadequate behavior
segments in these conditions may in addition develop deformities and disorders. The prevalence
of these disorders occurs particularly among school age children. Researches show that occurrenc-
es of deformities and bad postural status have negative trends (Sabo, 2003; Slavnić et al., 2005).
Many studies showed that the flat-foot represents the most common disorder of the low-
er extremities especially in early childhood (Mihajlovic, Tončev and Hmjelovjec, 2008; Trajkov-
ic and Nikolic, 2008; Protic - Gava and Krneta, 2010). Such an occurrence is characterized by the
loosening and weakening of the arch of the foot, leading to the loss of its physiological and func-
tional properties. (Jovović, 1999, Jovovich and Čanjak, 2012). Zivkovic and Milenkovic (1994)
examined the state of postural disorders and the results show the highest percentage in spine and
feet deformity. Researches of postural status among preschool children in Novi Sad show that the
largest deviations occur in holding back, shoulders, abdomen, also boys had better posture of the
head and abdomen than girls (Sabo, 2003; Toth, 2001). From these studies it can be seen that the
disturbances is in really high percentage and that their appearance becomes increasingly wide-
spread, especially among children of pre-school age and also in early school period.
Method
The survey was conducted with a sample of 833 children, between the ages of 4 and 13.
All children attend either Kindergarten or Elementary School and come from the Municipality of
Ruma, Stara Pazova, Sremska Mitrovica and Indjija.
Measuring instruments used in this study were evaluating anthropometric and postural sta-
tus. Anthropometric measures were assessed according to the method of the International Biologi-
cal Program (IBP) (Lohman, Roche, & Martorell, 1988). The sample of anthropometric measures
included (Bala, 1981):
1. Body height (mm)
2. Body weight (0.1 kg)
18
Differences in indicators of postural status between boys and girls from Srem
Contemplas and
3D compact protocol analysis were used in assessing postural state.
1. Cervica spine (C7)
2. Sacrum
3. Acromion left
4. Trochanter major left
5. Acromion right
6. Trochanter major right
7. Thoracic spine (kyphosis)
8. Condylus left
9. Lumbar spine (lordosis)
10. Condylus right
11. ISG left
12. Maleolus lateralis left
13. ISG right
14. Maleolus lateralis right
Based on the marked points we get the value in:
1. Position of the shoulders in the frontal plan;
2. Position of the pelvic in the frontal plan:
3. Posture in the sagittal plane
4. Position of the legs
The collected data was analysed through basic descriptive statistics means, Standard Devi-
ation, Minimum, Maximum, Skewness and Kurtosis. The analysis was carried out separately ac-
cording to different gender. Manova and Anova were used to determinate differences between gen-
der in all system of variables and also separately by every variable. Statistical analysis was per-
formed using the SPSS 20.0 statistical package.
Results
In the table we can see values of most of the observed parameters of postural status. Ap-
proximately one third of respondents have a bad posture, and there id a high number of those with
weaker body segments.
Table 1. Descriptive statistics
N
Min
Max
AS
SD
Age
431
4,53
13,72
7,452
2,023
Boys
Body high
430
103,50
160,60
127,526
13,169
Body weight
430
14,70
59,70
28,220
9,273
Age
405
3,95
11,88
7,658
2,069
Girls
Body high
406
103,10
166,40
128,628
13,802
Body weight
406
14,80
58,80
28,664
9,063
Legend: N - Number of respondents; Min - Minimum; Max - Maximum; AS - Mean; SD -Stand-
ard Deviation.
The results presented in Table 1 show the parameters of anthropometric characteristics and
distribution in each group of respondents
19
Milan Kojić
Table 2. Manova and Anova according to a gender
Variable
Gender
N
AS
SD
f
Sig.
Boys
437
,1385
,913
Shoulder displacement
,001
,971
Girls
407
,1407
,850
Boys
437
,0264
,340
Pelvic obliquity
,093
,761
Girls
407
,0196
,306
Boys
437
-,2279
4,798
Shoulder obliquity
,563
,453
Girls
407
-,4715
4,620
Distance cervical spine -
Boys
437
1,8387
2,121
,134
,715
Girls
407
1,7862
2,041
sacrum
Distance thoracic spine -
Boys
437
-1,3736
1,614
6,971
,008
sacrum
Girls
407
-1,0767
1,651
Distance lumbar spine -
Boys
437
1,5118
1,019
60,034
,000
sacrum
Girls
407
2,0716
1,079
Boys
437
,4926
2,731
Varus/Valgus left
39,957
,000
Girls
407
1,6551
2,601
Boys
437
,8554
2,759
Varus/Valgus right
23,740
,000
Girls
407
1,7667
2,666
Boys
437
-,1947
,942
Cervical spine
,000
,991
Girls
407
-,1939
,861
Boys
437
-,3957
,717
Thoracic spine
,188
,665
Girls
407
-,4171
,712
Boys
437
-,1606
,318
Lumbar spine
,017
,898
Girls
407
-,1636
,349
F
Sig.
9,701
,000
Legend: N- Number of respondents; AS- Mean; SD- Standard Deviation; F- value of f test;
Sig- Statistical signification on level of p≤0, 05
By determining the difference between boys and girls on the whole sample variable, trying
to contribute to establishing the space in the relationship between gender and the characteristics of
postural status between them. Table 2 shows the results of multivariate analysis of variance, which
showed that there is a statistically significant difference between the two groups. When evaluat-
ing individual we can see that the differences do not occur in all variables. Specifically, the vari-
ables Distance thoracic spine - sacrum, lumbar spine Distance - sacrum, Varus / Valgus and Var-
us left / right Valgus show significant differences among each other. There is no significant differ-
ence between boys and girls when other variables are referred to. Univariate analysis of variance
and F-test value may indicate that the greatest difference noticed in the variables Distance lumbar
spine - sacrum and Varus / Valgus left. Moreover, it is evident that the distribution of the standard
deviation does not show large deviations from the normal distribution of values in both male and
20
Differences in indicators of postural status between boys and girls from Srem
female samples. Accordingly, it may be said that the sample belongs to the normal distribution in
the population.
Discussion
photometric method was applied in this research in order to assess postural status of sub-
jects of both genders aged 4 to 13 using the system for postural analysis of 3D body with the TEM-
PLO software. The great importance of this work lies in the fact that we are able to observe the de-
velopment of posture during this very important and tumultuous development period of children.
It gives us the ability to better identify their needs. We get the opportunity to make adequately and
efficiently programmed preventive system of physical exercise.
Research results that the boys and girls significantly distinguish in postural status. It is ev-
ident also that boys have a better segmental parameter and thus better postural status at a general
level. Individually, the difference is greatest in the area of leg deformities as well as in distance of
vertebrae in the frontal plane. Stronger muscles and better posture boys in this period may be the
reason for these results. The girls have a higher degree of deformity of the legs as varus and valgus
shape of legs. The bad status of spinal column in frontal plane show that scoliosis as a phenomenon
more common in girls, and that such deformities result of weak muscles, especially in lower back.
Modern diagnostic postural status with Contemplas equipment provides precise and effi-
cient detection of posture status. From result in the large number of respondents overall findings
suggest that proper growth and development of children and youth depend on many factors, but
primarily on the active involvement of parents. Therefore, it is necessary to let the kids run free,
jump, to climb, crawl, which can be achieved by involving children in active life, sport, gymnas-
tics but also in other forms of exercise. Children timely brought into the daily programming, and
strictly controlled physical activity aimed at improving posture status. With fining of this research
parents should pay more attention to the segments of the spine and legs as.
The lifestyle of parents and children causes a lack of movement so the children must spend
less time at the computer and more time in a variety of physical activities: cycling, swimming
training, training skating, roller skating, long walks. Along with that, with diagnostics of postur-
al status it is possible to prevent it, and encourage the proper growth and development. That form
should be created to help parents, physical education teachers, coaches, physicians and children.
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