EXERCISE AND QUALITY OF LIFE
Research article
Volume 4, No. 1, 2012, 43-52
UDC 796.323.2-051:796.015.52
INFLUENCE OF COMPLEX TRAINING ON EXPLOSIVE
POWER OF KNEE EXTENSOR MUSCLES OF BASKETBALL
JUNIORS
Dejan Javorac
Faculty of Sport and Physical Education
University of Novi Sad, Serbia
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to establish the effects of an experimental treatment, so called
ìRussian complexî on explosive leg power of the basketball players belonging to the
experimental group. Explosive leg power was measured on the sample consisting of 40
basketball players from the Serbian league: 20 basketball players from the experimental group
and 20 from the control group, all aged between 16 and 18. The experimental group was the
subject of the experimental treatment, so called ìRussian complexî, which included gym
exercises and took place twice a week during the period of ten weeks. The results of the
univariate analysis of covariance indicated that the experimental programme led to a
statistically significant improvement of all three motor variables used for the evaluation of
explosive leg power (Sargent Jump Test, Standing Triple Jump and Standing Jump) in the
experimental group of examinees, in comparison to the control group.
Keywords: Russian complex, explosive leg power, training effects, basketball players.
Introduction
The complex training of basketball players was established by Russian and Bulgarian
coaches and it included a combination of more and less demanding exercises during one
training (Ebben, & Blackard, 1998). In science and sport that type of exchanging maximum
and explosive muscle contractions of the same (agonistic) muscle group is known as a
ìcomplex trainingî. There is an opinion among coaches that overcoming difficulties caused
by loading a body (e.g. by weights), as well as dealing with small loading (e.g. body weight)
produces a better neuromuscular adaptation (Sale, 2002).
This complex type of training causes a better neuromuscular adaptation and the
maximum force and speed of using that force, so the combination of concentric, exentric-
Corresponding author. Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Lov„enska 16, 21000
Novi Sad, Serbia, e-mail: javorac.dejan@gmail.com
© 2012 Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia
D. Javorac
concentric explosive exercises influences a quick generating of muscular force (Adams,
OíShea, OíShea, & Climstein, 1992; Burger, Boyer-Kendrick, & Dolny, 2000; Fatouros et al.,
2000; Jensen, Ebben, Blackard, McLaughlin, Watts, 1999: Jensen, & Ebben, 2003).
Recently science has confirmed the assumptions of coaches and the research in
laboratories has proved that exchanging more and less demanding exercises can lead to
significant training effects and strength improvement (Blakey & Southard, 1987; Ebben &
Blackard, 1998; Duthie, Young, & Aitken, 2002).
The implementation of bigger physical loading, such as pre-loading, improves
explosive movements. Exercising with loading causes a temporarily better performance of the
following action due to the increased stimulation of the central nervous system (Jensen et al.,
1999; Fatouros et al., 2000).
Excitation of the central nervous system is the result of the acute physiological
adaptation, which lasts between 8 and 10 minutes and it is called Postactivation Potentiation -
PAP (Sale, 2002).
The essence of PAP is the influence of exercises with big loading which causes a high
level of stimulation of nerves and results in the involvement of a greater number of motor
units and a higher frequency of discharging neural impulses. There are two basic ways of
applying the complex training:
1) Combining big and small loading between the series of exercises
2) Combining big and small loading during the series, so called, super-series.
In this research the second method was used and it represents grouping two or more
exercises which are done in one big series (super-series), while the exercises with bigger and
smaller loading are done interchangeably with the maximum speed. This method is known as
the ìRussian complexî.
Method
The sample consisted of 40 basketball players (Serbian league west): 20 basketball
players from the experimental group and 20 from the control group all aged between 16 and
18. They were subjected to both initial and control measurement of the explosive leg power.
The initial measurement was done in September, while the control measurement took place in
November, after two weeks of the treatment.
With the purpose of evaluating explosive leg power the following tests were applied
(the best result was taken into account):
1) Sargent Jump Test ñ reached height (cm) (Baö„evan and Antekolovi„, 2008).
2) Standing Triple Jump (cm) and
3) Standing Jump (cm).
These tests of motor abilities were applied in both initial and final measurement in the
same groups of examinees. The tests belong to the group of composite tests with three units of
measurement, while only the best results were used for the statistical data processing.
44
Complex strength training in basketball juniors
The experimental programme lasted ten weeks. The experimental group, apart from
regular basketball trainings, had complex trainings in a gym twice a week, while the control
group had only technical tactical basketball trainings. The experimental group used 3-5
exercises for lower limbs in order to strengthen them.
Every exercise done by the basketball players from the experimental group consisted
of preloading which was 50-80% of one-rep. max (1RM). This level of performance was
established by measuring the absolute strength of every individual player. After preloading
and a 2 min break specific exercises without loading took place
(e.g. half squat with
preloading as the basic exercise, followed by half-squat standing jumps without loading as a
specific exercise). Preloading was performed in 4 series with 6-8 repetitions, while specific
exercises were done with 10 repetitions. The break between the series lasted 4 minutes.
Statistical data processing consisted of the arithmetic mean (M) and standard deviation
(SD) of all measuring units for all three tests of motor abilities. It was followed by
establishing the reliability of the tests by applying Cronbachís alpha coefficient in both initial
and final measurement for both groups of examinees. After that basic descriptive statistical
values of motor variables of the initial and final measurement were established: M, SD,
minimum (MIN) and maximum (MAX) values of the results of measurements.
Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was implemented with the purpose of
establishing the effects of the training programme between two tests. Univariate analysis of
covariance (ANCOVA) was used with the purpose of establishing (statistically significant
differences between the initial and final measurement)
Results
Prior to the statistical data processing, the reliability of motor measuring instruments
was established. In accordance with the data processing, the coefficient of reliability was
established using Cronbachís · coefficient, since the motor tests were composite and included
three units. In order to establish the reliability, the group of examinees and the time of
measurement (initial and final) were also taken into account.
45
D. Javorac
Table 1.
Reliability of composite motor tests used in the experimental group of basketball players for
the initial and final measurement.
Masurement
Test
M SD
·
Sargent Jump Test (cm)
0,82
I
1. Sargent Jump Test (cm)
297,70
8,05
N
2. Sargent Jump Test (cm)
297,85
8,37
I
3. Sargent Jump Test (cm)
297,95
8,42
T
Standing Triple Jump (cm)
0,88
I
1. Standing Triple Jump (cm)
586,80
17,92
A
2. Standing Triple Jump (cm)
586,50
18,29
L
3. Standing Triple Jump (cm)
588,45
29,13
Standing Jump (cm)
0,83
1. Standing Jump (cm)
213,90
15,88
2. Standing Jump (cm)
213,00
14,64
3. Standing Jump (cm)
210,80
13,27
Sargent Jump Test (cm)
0,91
1. Sargent Jump Test (cm)
303,25
8,97
2. Sargent Jump Test (cm)
300,10
10,66
F
3. Sargent Jump Test (cm)
299,50
9,93
I
Standing Triple Jump (cm)
0,80
N
1. Standing Triple Jump (cm)
592,20
17,34
A
2. Standing Triple Jump (cm)
591,80
18,96
L
3. Standing Triple Jump (cm)
596,95
20,15
Standing Jump (cm)
0,83
1. Standing Jump (cm)
218,85
12,72
2. Standing Jump (cm)
219,75
13,94
3. Standing Jump (cm)
218,15
12,27
· - Cronbachís coefficient of reliability, M - arithmetic mean; SD - standard deviation
46
Complex strength training in basketball juniors
Values of the coefficient of reliability for the experimental group of basketball players
indicate that the greatest reliability belongs to Sargent Jump Test in the final measurement (·
= 0,91). Other motor tests showed good reliability when used for the evaluation of explosive
leg power in the initial and final measurement.
Taking the values of the arithmetic mean into account, it can be concluded that in the
initial measurement of Sargent Jump Test the examinees from the experimental group of
basketball players had the best average result in the third attempt. In the first two attempts
they obviously practiced the technique of the jump, while in the third they did their best and
had the best result. In the final measurement the best average result was achieved in the first
attempt. In other two attempts the results were worse. The best result in the first attempt can
be the consequence of the previous experience the basketball players had in the initial
measurement, which certainly influenced the results in the first attempt after ten weeks.
In the second test (Standing Triple Jump) used for the evaluation of the explosive leg
power, the basketball players from the experimental group achieved the best average results
of the initial and final measurement in the third attempt. Having understood the task, they did
their best and achieved the best results. The technique necessary for doing a triple jump was
adjusted to the power of legs and it resulted in having the best results in the third attempt. In
the first two attempts the players just practiced the technique of the jump.
When the basketball players from the experimental group were subjected to the test
Standing Jump, they achieved the best average results of the initial measurement in the first
attempt. The fact that the values of the results decreased in the attempts that followed proves
that they had the greatest strength in the first attempt. In the final measurement the best
average results were achieved in the second attempt. Then they used all their potentials and
did their best.
The examinees from the experimental group are extremely homogeneous in all three
attempts in both initial and final measurement, which is indicated by the values of the
arithmetic mean and standard deviation. It can be concluded that all basketball players from
the experimental group are on similar levels of development of explosive leg power.
The greatest reliability in the control group of basketball players was showed by the
test Standing Triple Jump (· = 0,86) in the final measurement. The results of the analysis of
reliability showed by the test of motor abilities in the control group of basketball players in
the initial and final measurement indicate high reliability of these tests when they are used to
evaluate the explosive power of legs.
The average results of the variable Sargent Jump Test show that this group of
basketball players had the best results in the initial and final measurement during the first
attempt when they did the exercise with the greatest strength and achieved the best results. In
the second and third attempt the average results were gradually becoming lower in both initial
and final measurement as the consequence of the lack of strength in leg muscles.
47
D. Javorac
Table 2.
Reliability of composite motor tests used for the control group of basketball players in the
initial and final measurement.
Measurement
Test
M SD
·
Sargent Jump Test (cm)
0,80
I
1. Sargent Jump Test (cm)
298,35
7,42
N
2. Sargent Jump Test (cm)
296,50
5,62
I
3. Sargent Jump Test (cm)
291,58
7,67
T
Standing Triple Jump (cm)
0,80
I
1. Standing Triple Jump (cm)
584,95
22,68
A
2. Standing Triple Jump (cm)
588,70
11,97
L
3. Standing Triple Jump (cm)
590,65
13,30
Standing Jump (cm)
0,80
1. Standing Jump (cm)
213,25
10,61
2. Standing Jump (cm)
209,75
13,58
3. Standing Jump (cm)
211,55
10,24
Sargent Jump Test (cm)
0,85
1. Sargent Jump Test (cm)
298,35
6,03
2. Sargent Jump Test (cm)
295,65
6,56
F
3. Sargent Jump Test (cm)
294,70
4,89
I
Standing Triple Jump (cm)
0,86
N
1. Standing Triple Jump (cm)
586,50
15,81
A
2. Standing Triple Jump (cm)
585,55
12,94
L
3. Standing Triple Jump (cm)
581,85
13,69
Standing Jump (cm)
0,82
1. Standing Jump (cm)
214,65
12,40
2. Standing Jump (cm)
211,90
9,79
3. Standing Jump (cm)
214,45
10,05
· - Cronbachís coefficient of reliability, M - arithmetic mean; SD - standard deviation
In the test Standing Triple Jump, the best average results of the initial measurement
were achieved in the third attempt. Having learned how to perform the task in the previous
two attempts, the players were ready to achieve the best average results. In the final
measurement, having enough experience from the initial measurement, the basketball players
from the control group achieved the best result in the first measurement, while in other two
attempts the results were weaker, as the consequence of leg exhaustion.
48
Complex strength training in basketball juniors
The basketball players from the control group achieved the best results in the test
Standing Jump in the first attempt in both initial and final measurement when they used the
knowledge of performing the jump (technique of the jump), as well as the strength of legs.
They coordinated the movements of legs and arms and achieved the best results. In latter
attempts their average results were somewhat weaker, which was the consequence of muscle
exhaustion and the decrease of the level of strength.
Similarly to the basketball players from the experimental group of examinees, the
players from the control group were also homogenous in all tests in all three attempts (in both
initial and final measurement. The fact that the development of the explosive leg power is
synchronized is supported by the values of arithmetic mean.
The values of the results of arithmetic means and standard deviations (Table 3)
indicate that the basketball players from the experimental and control group are homogenous
in both initial and final measurement for all three motor variables. These basketball players
are on similar level of development of explosive leg power to other players of their age. Being
homogenous is the consequence of the selection of basketball players in their clubs and a
similar type of trainings which players are mostly exposed by their coaches.
Table 3.
Basic descriptive statistical values of motor variables
Measurement
Variable
Group
M SD MIN MAX
Experimental
302,35
7,15
290
322
Sargent Jump Test (cm)
Initial
Control
300,45
5,57
290
310
Experimental
597,95
20,34
550
630
measurement Standing Triple Jump
(cm)
Control
594,60
11,36
577
610
Experimental
220,15
12,38
195
245
Standing Jump (cm)
Control
218,00
10,77
195
236
Experimental
304,85
8,74
285
328
Sargent Jump Test (cm)
Final
Control
299,75
5,73
291
312
measurement Standing Triple Jump
Experimental
604,85
8,56
570
645
(cm)
Control
595,85
13,10
571
615
Experimental
225,60
9,86
209
245
Standing Jump (cm)
Control
219,80
9,69
201
235
Mñarithmetic mean; SDñstandard deviation; MINñmin. values of the results; MAXñmax. values of the results
The analysis the results from Table 4 showed that there are statistically significant
differences (p = 0,04) between the experimental and control group of basketball players only
in the variable Sargent Jump Test in the final measurement on behalf of the examinees from
the experimental group. There were no noticeable statistically significant differences for other
motor variables in the initial and final measurement. Both groups were almost on the same
level before the experimental programme.
49
D. Javorac
Table 4.
Results of univariate analysis of variance of motor variables (ANOVA)
Measurement Variable
F
p
Sargent Jump Test (cm)
0,88
0,36
Initial
Standing Triple Jump (cm)
0,41
0,52
Standing Jump (cm)
0,34
0,56
Sargent Jump Test (cm)
4,77
0,04
Final
Standing Triple Jump (cm)
3,14
0,08
Standing Jump (cm)
3,52
0,07
F-value of F-test; p-the level of statistical significance of F-test
Table 5 shows the results of the univariate analysis of covariance which indicate the
existence of statistically significant differences in all three motor variables on behalf of the
experimental group of examinees after the experimental treatment ìRussian complexî was
applied. After the effect of initial measurement was neutralized the examinees from the
experimental group of basketball players achieved statistically significant and better results in
comparison to the examinees from the control group of basketball players in all three motor
variables: Sargent Jump Test (p = 0,01), Standing Triple Jump (p = 0,05) and Standing Jump
(p = 0,03).
Table 5.
Univariate analysis of covariance for motor variables (ANCOVA)
Variable
Group
M*
F
p
Experimental
303,92
Sargent Jump Test (cm)
8,45
0,01
Control
300,72
Experimental
603,52
Standing Triple Jump (cm)
4,26
0,05
Control
597,22
Experimental
224,92
Standing Jump (cm)
5,11
0,03
Control
220,52
M*- corrected arithmetic mean; F - value of the relation of statistical significance of differences among
the groups; p - level of statistical significance of F-relation
50
Complex strength training in basketball juniors
Discussion
Having applied the ìRussian complexî of exercising in a gym, the purpose of which
was to generate the muscle power through additional trainings during the period of ten weeks,
the examinees from the experimental group improved their results in all three motor variables
used for the evaluation of explosive power and achieved statistically significant improvement
in all three variables in comparison to the examinees from the control group.
The use of higher loading for gym exercises, which served as warm-up exercises,
caused the improvement of explosive leg power of the basketball players from the
experimental group. Doing exercises with high loading allowed temporary improvement of
the following action due to the increased stimulation of the central nervous system. These
results have been confirmed by the research (Jensen et al., 1999; Fatouros et al., 2000).
Using the basic principles of the ìRussian complexî of exercises, combining high and
low loading between the series of exercises and combining high and low loading inside a
series, so-called super series, has led to the increase of power in leg muscles in the
experimental group of basketball players.
Taking into account that the applied experimental protocol has proved to be effective
in working with young basketball players, further research verification is required, as well as
the control of factors which were not the subject of this research (gender, SES, variables
which are related to a court, club, etc.)
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Submitted April 15, 2012
Accepted June 15, 2012
52