EXERCISE AND QUALITY OF LIFE
Research article
Volume 3, No. 1, 2011, 41-49
UDC 572.512-057.875:796.012.11
RELATIONS BETWEEN ANTHROPOMETRIC
CHARACTERISTICS AND LATENT DIMENSIONS OF
STRENGTH IN PERSONS OF ABOVE-AVERAGE MOTOR
ABILITIES
Milan Cvetkovi„, Damjan Jaköi„ and Dejan Orli„
Faculty of sport and physical education
University of Novi Sad
Abstract
Mere enrollment on the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education assumes that the
population has been selected according to several criteria. One of the most typical criteria is
motor development, hence students of sport and physical education might be treated as persons
of above-average motor abilities. Test battery of 17 anthropometrical tests and 14 strength tests
has been applied on the sample of 149 males, students of the Faculty of Sport and Physical
Education in Novi Sad. The purpose of this paper is to determine relations between
anthropometrical measures and latent dimensions of strength. Within the latent space of strength,
after Promax rotation of major components and based on KG criteria, three strength factors have
been isolated: static and repetitive strength, especially that of hands and trunk to a lesser degree,
explosive strength of legs, and explosive strength of arms. Finaly, three statistically significant
canonical correlations have been isolated. The first is that of explosive strength of arms having
negative correlation with all anthropometrical variables, the second is explosive strength of legs
which is in negative correlation with subcutaneous fat tissue of upper leg and triceps, but in
positive correlation with the measures of longitudinal dimensionality of skeleton, whereas the
third is static and repetitive strength of arms (and trunk to a lesser degree) being in negative
correlation with body height and leg length.
Key words: students/ static and repetitive strength/ explosive strength
Introduction
Anthropometric characteristics are the most obvious area within the bio-psycho-
sociological status of the human population. They are the manifestation of morphological
dimensions such as the constitution, body composition, structure or assembly as an organized
and relatively constant integrity of features relative to each other. This set is usually formed by
endogenous factors (internal) and to a lesser extent by exogenous (external, middle).
Corresponding author. Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Lov„enska 16, 21000
Novi Sad, Serbia. E-mail: cveksha@gmail.com
© 2010 Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia
M. Cvetkovi et al.
Motor skills are usually defined as indicators of development level of the basic motion
dimensions of human that influence the successful realization of movement, regardless of
whether that skills are acquired through training or not. Motor ability, examined in this work -
strength, Zaciorski (1975) defines as the ability of man to overcome the external resistance, or to
confront him with straining of muscle.
The sample of respondents is comprised of persons of above average motor skills, in fact,
students of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education. Mere enrollment on this kind of faculty
assumes that the population has been selected according to several criteria, including: the level of
biological development, the level of health development (injured or sick respondents do not even
take the entrance exam), the level of motor development and the level of intellectual and
conative development . One of the most typical criterion is exactly the motor development, and
hence it is mentioned above.
Researching of relationships between anthropometric characteristics and dimensions of
latent power in people of above average motor skills was conducted by numerous authors
starting from Kureli„, Momirovi„, Stojanovi„, äturm, Radojev„ and Viski„-ätalec (1975), and
their capital work, to the latest researches by Prûulj and Pelemiö (2010). These authors have
obtained relatively high correlation of areas mentioned.
The aim of this paper is to determine the relation between anthropometric characteristics
and latent dimensions of strength of this specific population.
Method
The sample of participants in this paper consisted of 149 male students of Faculty of
Sport and Physical Education from Novi Sad. The mean age of participants on the test day was
20.15 decimal years (± 0.83). All of the participants were clinically healthy and highly motivated
to participate, on the test day.
The battery of 17 anthropometric measures was applied on respondents, 15 measures that
are part of the International Biological Program (IBP) battery and two that are not, but the
authors felt that their use will contribute to better understanding of relations between studied
areas. Exactly as directed by IBP, measurements of anthropometric characteristics were carried
out.
According to factorial morphological model (Viski„-ätalec, 1974; Kureli„, Momirovi„,
Stojanovi„, äturm, Radojevi„, & Viski„-ätalec, 1975; Stojanovi„, Solari„, Vukosavljevi„, &
Momirovi„, 1975, etc..), the following measures were applied:
For evaluation of the longitudinal dimensionality of the skeleton: Body height, Arm
length and Leg length.
For evaluation of the transversal dimensionality of the skeleton: Diameter of the ankle,
Diameter of the knee joint and Diameter of the pelvis.
For evaluation of the body volume and weight: Body weight, Circumference of the
chest (middle), Circumference of the upper arm (stretched), Circumference of the
upper arm (during flexion and contraction), Circumference of the upper leg and
Circumference of the lower leg.
For evaluation of the subcutaneous fat tissue: Skin fold on the back (subscapular),
Forearm skin fold (triceps), Skin fold of the abdomen, Skin fold of the upper leg and
Skin fold of the lower leg.
42
Anthropometric characteristics and strength in students
For the evaluation of strength a battery of 14 motor tests was applied, which in previous
researches showed great reliability on the respondents of similar age and of similar life style.
Applied battery is part of a far more complex battery defined by Metikoö, Prot, Hoffman, Pintar
and Oreb
(1989) and based on its standardization, qualified measurers performed the
measurement.
The battery consisted of the following measuring instruments: Pull-ups, Lifting the trunk
in
30 seconds, Horizontal endurance on the back, Standing long jump, Deep squat for 30
seconds, Throwing a medicine ball while lying on the back, Endurance in a push-up,
Straightening of trunk, Standing high jump, Endurance under load in half-squat, Throwing a
medicine ball from the chest during spread leg sitting, Hanging while in pull-up position, Push-
ups and Standing triple jump.
Also, a detailed description and organizational details related to the measurement can be
found in Cvetkovi„ (2007).
As far as statistical processing, we applied the following statistical procedures:
For all variables that were used, the basic descriptive statistics were calculated. Then, the
variables which evaluated strength were factorized by rotating the initial matrix into a more
favorable OBLIVAX oblique solution (Momirovi„, 1998). In the paper by Momirovi„ (1999),
the behavior of different types of oblique factorial solutions was described, and was found that
OBLIVAX oblique rotation extracted latent dimensions with the most information and with
greatest representativeness, even compared to other oblique rotations like Orthoblique rotation
(Harris & Kaiser, 1964), Promax (Hendrickson & White, 1964) and Direct oblimin (Jenrich, &
Sampson, 1966) which were applied in the same paper. The number of statistically significant
factors was determined based on Intruder in the Dust (ITD) criterion (Momirovi„, 1998), which
is a relaxed PB criterion (ätalec and Momirovi„, 1971) and also represent a compromise between
the criteria with the hyper-factorization tendency (eg., KG (Kaiser, 1961)) and the criteria with
hypo-factorization (eg., Scree (Cattel, 1966)). Factors extracted in this way are latent dimensions
of power, and after extraction their definition followed. Relationships between the latent
dimensions of strength and anthropometric characteristics were determined by canonical
correlation analysis, while observing if the variables sets are well designed and which one was
better designed in the second set, was performed by redundant analysis.
43
M. Cvetkovi et al.
Results
Tables 1 and 2 show the basic descriptive statistics of variables.
Table 1
Basic descriptive statistics of anthropometric variables
VARIABLE
M SD
MIN
MAX
SKE
KUR
Body height (mm)
1816.26
62.996
1670
1975
.054
-.625
Arm length (mm)
798.32
36.171
717
899
.036
-.304
Leg length (mm)
1022.36
44.142
894
1134
-.068
-.010
Ankle diameter (mm)
70.99
3.895
62
85
.694
1.132
Knee joint diameter (mm)
100.22
4.324
91
113
.166
-.204
Width of the pelvis (mm)
286.68
16.600
255
345
.505
.534
Body weight (kg)
77.900
9.3314
54.6
123.8
.894
3.223
Chest circumference, middle (cm)
96.71
5.440
80
118
.399
1.762
Circumference of stretched upper arm (cm)
28.13
2.614
22
36
.677
.890
Circumference of bent upper arm (cm)
31.89
2.785
24
40
.468
.609
Upper leg circumference (cm)
56.23
4.358
45
74
.404
1.317
Lower leg circumference (cm)
36.74
2.400
32
44
.269
.099
Back skin fold (mm)
118.56
33.335
68
254
1.375
2.777
Triceps skin fold (mm)
91.02
32.100
28
190
.605
.092
Abdominal skin fold (mm)
131.31
51.240
52
300
.696
-.062
Upper leg skin fold (mm)
157.95
47.499
50
300
.195
-.289
Lower leg skin fold (mm)
96.82
39.948
40
240
1.083
1.054
Legend: M ñ mean, SD ñ standard deviation, MIN ñ minimal result, MAX ñ maximal result, SKE ñ skewness, KUR
- kurtosis
Based on the results from Table 1 it can be seen that the homogeneity of the sample is
present on all the variables, except for variables of Back skin fold and Lower leg skin fold where
some higher skewness results were observed, but nothing worrisome because it is not uncommon
that the values for subcutaneous fat are not normally distributed (eg Momirovi„, Hoöek, Prot and
Bosnar, 2003). Also, skewness is positive in all variables that assess the subcutaneous fat tissue,
which indicates that the distribution curve of results found in these variables moved to the area
of small values, which in turn implies that the students of the Faculty of Physical Education are
generally athletic type, which is expected.
44
Anthropometric characteristics and strength in students
Table 2.
Basic descriptive statistics of the strength variables
VARIABLE
M SD MIN MAX SKE KUR
Pull-ups (freq.)
10.67
5.274
0
31
1.089
1.815
Lifting the trunk (freq.)
30.28
3.257
22
38
.173
.024
Horizontal endurance (s)
52.75
23.283
12
142
.890
1.561
Standing long jump (cm)
245.87
18.461
198
299
.228
.637
Deep squat (freq.)
32.15
2.432
23
39
-.159
1.340
Throwing a medicine ball (cm)
1034.56
142.024
640
1490
.146
.305
Endurance in a push-up (s)
43.92
17.968
16
127
1.059
2.168
Straightening of trunk (freq.)
67.42
29.806
11
200
1.855
4.977
Standing high jump (cm)
52.06
6.117
37
73
.527
.776
Endurance in half-squat (s)
64.92
34.406
12
255
1.694
5.798
Throwing a medicine ball (sit) (cm)
684.63
78.297
500
910
.243
.161
Hanging while in pull-up (s)
62.25
18.357
20
106
.196
-.312
Push-ups (freq.)
15.43
8.135
2
50
1.362
2.811
Standing triple jump (cm)
685.07
53.263
530
851
.268
.300
By looking at Table 2 we can observe that the value of the skewness in the variables
Straightening of trunk, Endurance in half-squat and Pushups supports the fact that the motor
ability assessed with these measuring instruments isnít applied on a homogeneous population.
Since the strength is in question, where the difference in the quality of performance depends
from person to person, even this finding isnít worrying.
Table 3
Results of OBLIVAX rotatation according to ITD criteria
VARIABLE
H*1 A**1
H2 A2
H3 A3
Pull-ups
.816
.763
.437
.183
-.298
.029
Lifting the trunk
.613
.558
.217
-.036
-.376
-.191
Horizontal endurance
.351
.327
-.250
-.558
-.554
-.616
Standing long jump
.369
.046
.901
.862
-.362
-.073
Deep squat
.570
.558
.163
-.059
-.270
-.092
Throwing medicine ball (back)
.337
-.015
.475
.237
-.836
-.765
Endurance in a push-up
.780
.788
.255
-.015
-.266
.006
Straightening of trunk
.236
.210
-.027
-.179
-.267
-.250
Standing high jump
.299
.001
.865
.866
-.272
.003
Endurance in half-squat
.266
.203
.068
-.084
-.304
-.259
Throwing a medicine ball (sit)
.156
-.225
.439
.252
-.835
-.834
Hanging while in pull-up
.607
.683
.286
.173
.090
.385
Push-ups
.802
.761
.362
.090
-.325
-.028
Standing triple jump
.307
-.005
.870
.857
-.317
-.047
Legend:, *H ñ structure, **A ñ pattern
45
M. Cvetkovi et al.
After factorial analysis (Table 3) it was noted that three principal components were
identified. The first principal component is composed of the following manifestations:
Endurance in push-up, Pull-ups, Push-ups, Hanging while in pull-up and to a lesser degree
Lifting the trunk and Deep squat, so this factor could be interpreted as Static and repetitive
strength mainly of arms, and to a lesser degree of trunk.
The second factor was defined based on three manifestations: Standing high jump,
Standing long jump and Standing triple jump and unambiguously is defined as Explosive leg
strength.
The third factor consisted of: Throwing a medicine ball while sitting and Throwing a
medicine ball while lying on back and was defined as Explosive arm strength.
Table 4
Factors correlations
(Pearsonís correlation - the lower triangle, the statistical significance - the upper triangle)
FACTORS
1.
2.
3.
1. Static and repetitive strength
.565
.166
2. Explosive leg strength
-.048
.000
3. Explosive arm strength
.114
-.735
By observing the Table 4 we can notice that there is statistically significance at the level
of p = 0.000 between the second and third factor, Explosive leg strength and Explosive arm
strength, suggesting that this is actually the one factor that is separated in two by a topological
criterion. Also, this would mean that, in the case of continuing of factor analysis, entering the
second-order factors, probably only one major component would be extracted ñ the strength. For
this reason, factor analysis was completed in the space of first order.
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Anthropometric characteristics and strength in students
Table 5
Results of cannonical correlation analysis
Latent variables of strength
CV1s
CV2s
CV3s
Static and repetitive strength
.399
.320
-.859
Explosive leg strength
-.126
.931
.343
Explosive arm strength
.738
-.674
-.041
Anthropometric variables
CV1a
CV2a
CV3a
Body height
-.297
.530
.664
Arm length
-.237
.621
.382
Leg length
-.212
.519
.531
Ankle diameter
-.437
.167
.208
Knee joint diameter
-.532
.166
.248
Width of the pelvis
-.290
.274
.296
Body weight
-.918
.131
.306
Chest circumference, middle
-.800
.166
-.036
Circumference of stretched upper arm
-.805
.108
-.281
Circumference of bent upper arm
-.757
.292
-.329
Upper leg circumference
-.807
-.215
.277
Lower leg circumference
-.663
-.085
.319
Back skin fold
-.660
-.326
.085
Triceps skin fold
-.520
-.492
.111
Abdominal skin fold
-.606
-.392
.184
Upper leg skin fold
-.476
-.574
.012
Lower leg skin fold
-.514
-.457
-.019
Ò
.780
.701
.473
Ò²
.609
.492
.224
F
.154
.395
.776
p
.000
.000
.003
Legend: Ò ñ variance, Ò² - common variance of two canonical factors, F ñ Wilkís lambda, p ñ significance
By using canonical correlation analysis (Table 5) three statistically significant canonical
correlations were extracted.
The first statistically significant canonical correlation from the area of strength was the
Explosive arm strength, which is negatively correlated with all anthropometric variables, and
especially with all the variables that hypothetically estimated Body volume and weight and
Subcutaneous fat tissue. Within Transversal dimension of skeleton it is negatively correlated
with the Diameter of knee joint and Ankle diameter.
Through overlapping analysis (Table 6) it can be noted that many variables of strength
affect the anthropometric variables.
47
M. Cvetkovi et al.
Table 6
Overlapping analysis
Latent variables of strength
Anthropometric set
Û²
Ó
·
Û²
Ó
·
.719
.089
-.586
6.106
.133
.888
1.423
.115
.446
2.302
.033
.601
.858
.014
-.248
1.575
.005
.388
Legend: Û² ñ variance, Ó ñ redundancy index, · ñ reliability of canonical variable (canonical factor)
The second canonical correlation of strength area incorporated Explosive leg strength,
which is negatively correlated with subcutaneous fat accumulated on the upper leg and triceps,
and positively correlated with measures of longitudinal dimensionality of the skeleton. This
correlation is better explained through the set on the right side, so there is a greater influence of
anthropometry on explosive leg strength than the other way around.
The third canonical pair from strength area are Static and repetitive strength of arm and to
a lesser degree of trunk and Body height and Leg length from the set on the right side. There is
an evident negative correlation within the set and also a greater influence of anthropometric
variables on the Static and repetitive strength than vice versa.
Discussion
By application of factor analysis in this study three latent dimensions of strength were
extracted: static and repetitive strength, mainly of arms, and to a lesser degree of trunk, explosive
leg strength and explosive arm strength. Using canonical correlation analysis the following three
statistically significant canonical correlations were extracted.
First, itís the explosive arm strength that is negatively correlated with all anthropometric
variables. Obtained results are logical because the larger volume, mass, diameters of joints, and
especially the more subcutaneous fat, limit or even significantly reduce the expression of speed,
and thus the explosiveness, of any movement.
Second itís the explosive leg strength, which is negatively correlated with subcutaneous
fat tissue on the upper leg and triceps, and positively correlated with measures of longitudinal
skeleton dimensionality. This is understandable because it is expected that longer leverages, that
is limbs, also provide longer jumps, through which this latent ability was estimated.
Third itís static and dynamic strengths of arm (and slightly less of trunk) that are
negatively correlated with body height and leg length. This obtained canonical pair is logical
because the bigger longitudinality of skeleton causes the bigger mass, which in turn makes it
difficult to maintain or repeat movement on the long run.
The results of this study suggest an optimal and effective use of motor tests and
anthropometric measures to monitor a training effects while studying in the Faculty of Sport and
Physical Education.
48
Anthropometric characteristics and strength in students
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Submitted 8 April, 2011
Accepted 15 June, 2011
49