EXERCISE AND QUALITY OF LIFE
Research article
Volume 2, No. 1, 2010, 53-65
UDC
616.711-007.5-053.6:572.512;796.012.1/.2
CORRELATIONS BETWEEN ANTHROPOMETRIC
CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR ABILITIES IN
ADOLESCENTS WITH POSTURAL DISORDERS
AFFECTING THE SAGITTAL PLANE
Tijana Krsmanovi„, Branka Proti„-Gava* and Dragoslav Jakoni„
Faculty of Sport and Physical Education
University of Novi Sad
Dobrica éivkovi„
Faculty of Sport and Physical Education
University of Niö
Abstract
A group of adolescents with postural distortion in the sagittal plane were used as a
sample group to study the relations between anthropometric characteristics and motor abilities.
The total sample included 202 students (79 boys and 123 girls). Their posture was evaluated
using the somatoscopic method by Napoleon Wolanski. Anthropometric characteristics (11) and
motor abilities (12) were brought into correlation with the aim of determining causal links of the
postural disorders affecting the sagittal plane. The results show considerable individual
differences in anthropometric characteristics and the level of motor abilities in both genders.
Generally speaking, we may conclude that the respondents with the postural distortion in the
sagittal plane have either a similar body-build or poorly developed certain motor abilities.
Keywords: posture, sagittal plane, anthropometrics, motor skills.
Introduction
Good posture is reflected in forming and maintaining the right balance between tonostatic
and kinetic musculature on the one hand, and the force of gravity on the other (Radisavljevi„,
2001), while the imbalance between these two factors leads to its distortion.
Postural distortion is a complex problem. The body segments have to be aligned in the
optimal equilibrium position, so that their centres of gravity are positioned at the common
vertical going straight to the center of the support surface. The body reaches its maximum height
* Corresponding author. University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, 21000 Novi Sad,
Lov„enska 16, e-mail: brankapg@gmail.com
© 2010 Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia
53
B. Proti-Gava et al.
when in the upright position, rendering the best conditions for starting a movement, and normal
conditions for thoracic and abdominal cavity functioning
(Radisavljevi„,
2001). There are
numerous causes of postural disorders, whereas Jevti„ (2001) argues that the principal cause of
deviation from the normal upright posture is to be found in the distorted tonic agonist-antagonist
balance, which causes sagging musculature, otherwise designed to confront the external forces in
order to keep the body parts in the normal upright position. This results in postural disorders and
spinal deformities in both sagittal and frontal planes.
Postural disorders cannot be observed isolated from one another, therefore, in order to get
a better picture of postural distortion anthropometric characteristics (constitutional) and motor
abilities (joint mobility and muscle condition, the level of how well one is trained). The period of
adolescence, which the respondents in this research pertain to, lasts between the age of 11 and
the time when ossification has been completed. Except for the last critical point of deformity
occurrence in childís growth and development, the period of adolescence also denotes the period
in the life of children when their biological transformation takes place (puberty). This is the
period when the level of motor abilities seems to decrease, and the goal of this research was to
determine relations between anthropometrics characteristics and motor abilities in adolescents
with postural disorders affecting the sagittal plane, also their relations. This period is also known
as a rapid acceleration period when the accelerated bone growth takes place (Jovovi„, 1999).
Turbulent hormone changes represent another reason why the occurrence of postural disorders in
the period of adolescence cannot be observed individually.
Method
The total sample included 202 students aged 15 years (±6 months) attending the first
grade of the High School of Economics in Novi Sad. The entire sample was divided into two
subsamples according to gender: 79 of them were male respondents and 123 female respondents.
The data were collected for the large-scale study (Krsmanovi„, 2010). Upon detecting the
postural disorders, of the entire sample numbering 400 respondents, 202 respondents with
postural disorders in the sagittal plane were singled out. Their posture was evaluated using the
modified somatoscopic method by Napoleon Wolanski (Radisavljevi„, 2001). The following
segments were evaluated: cervical, thoracic and lumbar curves.
Anthropometric measurements were carried out in accordance with the IBP principles,
whereas the battery is made up of 11 anthropometric measures: body height (AVIS), body mass
(AMAS), arm length (ADRU), leg length (ADNL, ADND), a chest circumference ( AOGK), a
belly circumference
(AOTR), an upper arm circumference (AONA), a calf circumference
(AOPO), biceps skinfold (ACNE), abdominal skinfold (AKTR), subscapular skinfold (AKLE).
For motor abilities assessment, 12 motor tests were used offering the most important information
on motor skills space of adolescents - for agility assessment: deep stretches - bending over with
oneís feet apart (MPRE), side bend (MOTL, MOTD) and shoulder rotation test holding a bar
(MISK); for assessing explosive strength endurance: long jump (MTRO) and a basketball throw
(MBAC); for assessing segmentary speed, i.e. movement frequency the following was applied:
hand tapping (MTPR), foot tapping (MTPN), tapping in the corner (MTPU) and for assessing
repetitive strength: torso lifting (MTRB), straightening (MLED) and push-ups (MSKL).
The obtained data were analyzed by means of a descriptive statistics: arithmetic mean,
standard deviation, minimal and maximum values. The relation between anthropometric
characteristics and motor abilities was established using a correlation analysis.
54
Characteristics of adolescents with postural disorders
Results
After gathering and statistically processing the data, the first to analyze were the central and
dispersion parameters of the respondents. Male respondents have a normal data distribution in all
anthropometric variables except in the case of calf circumference and all skinfolds (Table 1).
Table 1
Central and dispersion parameters of anthropometric variables in male respondents
Variables:
SV
SD
MIN
MAX KV%
IP
P
AVIS
1784.09
75.90
1506.0
1963.0
4.25
1767.08
1801.09
.767
AMAS
655.76
103.33
401.0
980.0
15.76
632.61
678.91
.893
ADRU
812.03
37.60
680.0
900.0
4.63
803.60
820.45
.556
ADNL
1060.13
57.28
890.0
1190.0
5.40
1047.30
1072.96
.606
ADND
1060.00
56.99
890.0
1190.0
5.38
1047.23
1072.77
.631
AOGK
846.92
59.77
735.0
999.0
7.06
833.53
860.32
.908
AOTR
742.94
58.98
645.0
910.0
7.94
729.72
756.15
.393
AONA
301.53
73.75
229.0
498.0
24.46
285.01
318.05
.106
AOPO
369.83
51.37
325.0
467.0
13.89
358.33
381.34
.043
AKNA
9.99
4.19
4.8
30.0
41.92
9.05
10.93
.034
AKTR
12.45
6.82
4.0
44.0
54.72
10.93
13.98
.012
AKLE
9.13
2.96
5.4
19.8
32.46
8.47
9.79
.018
The studied group of male respondents is homogenous based on the measures related to
longitudinal skeleton dimensionality: body height, arm and leg lengths.
Given the anthropometric characteristics, calf circumference and all skinfolds are the
variables contributing to heterogeneity of this group of respondents. Individual differences
within the group are remarkable, and thus there are respondents whose heights vary from 150 cm
up to 196 cm. Furthermore, the difference regarding the body mass is even more conspicuous:
ranging from 40.1 kg, to 98 kg among the respondents in his group.
In terms of motor abilities (Table 2), heterogeneity is reflected in the variables used for
assessing coordination and repetitive strength of the arms and shoulder area. Doing push-ups as
part of a test for assessing the repetitive strength of arms and shoulder muscles was an
exquisitely difficult task for some of the respondents who did not manage to do even a single
push-up. However, there are respondents who did as many as 40 of push-ups, which is an
outstanding achievement at this age.
55
B. Proti-Gava et al.
Table 2
Central and dispersion parameters of motor variables in male respondents
Variables:
SV
SD
MIN
MAX KV%
IP
P
MPRE
59.62
10.31
31.0
82.0
17.28
57.31
61.93
.888
MOTL
254.90
39.49
175.0
375.0
15.49
246.05
263.74
.938
MOTD
265.87
37.46
180.0
390.0
14.09
257.48
274.27
.471
MISK
82.40
15.42
50.0
121.0
18.71
78.95
85.86
.999
MSKO
213.80
22.81
130.0
255.0
10.67
208.69
218.91
.885
MTRO
605.38
69.28
230.0
710.0
11.44
589.86
620.90
.326
MBAC
602.59
106.93
350.0
860.0
17.74
578.64
626.55
.944
MTPR
31.04
3.64
19.0
39.0
11.72
30.22
31.85
.338
MTPN
20.83
2.36
13.0
27.0
11.31
20.31
21.36
.121
MTPU
5.37
2.56
.0
10.0
47.75
4.79
5.94
.652
MTRB
26.90
3.97
20.0
37.0
14.75
26.01
27.79
.157
MLED
26.09
3.11
17.0
35.0
11.92
25.39
26.78
.493
MSKL
12.92
9.51
.0
40.0
73.56
10.79
15.05
.462
In this group, there are respondents who could not repeat once coordination task (tapping
in the corner), but also the respondents who managed to perform this exercise 10 times in 30
seconds. The assumption is that considerable individual differences can be a reflection of a
neglected physical education and physical activity in general, but also an indicator that motor
abilities at this age in male respondents are not clearly differentiated.
In order to examine the relations between anthropometric characteristics and motor
abilities and their mutual connections, correlation analysis was carried out, and significant of
correlation coefficient was determined. Table 3 shows the analysis of results regarding the
correlation of certain anthropometric characteristics. Given the results, we may observe that
there are statistically significant positive correlations of the body height with other variables
related to the longitudinal dimensionality, as well as with the circumference variables (chest,
abdominal and calf circumference). As far as correlations between the body height and skinfolds,
the only relevant and positive ones are with the subscapular skinfold.
56
Characteristics of adolescents with postural disorders
Table 3
Correlation coefficient of the anthropometric variables in male respondents
N=79 AVIS AMAS ADRU ADNL ADND AOGK AOTR AONA AOPO AKNA AKTR AKLE
AMAS .575*
ADRU .854*
.537*
ADNL .844*
.371*
.811*
ADND .846*
.377*
.812*
.999*
AOGK .397*
.892*
.337*
.217*
.225*
AOTR .333*
.881*
.374*
.191
.197
.828*
AONA .193
.332*
.151
.078
.082
.334*
.229*
AOPO .222*
.444*
.162
.006
.007
.334*
.362*
.086
AKNA .137
.658*
.178
.115
.121
.688*
.638*
.179
.204
AKTR
.069
.581*
.084
-.006
-.002
.670*
.630*
.191
.204
.836*
AKLE
.228*
.756*
.228*
.141
.147
.721*
.748*
.247*
.300*
.809*
.829*
* Statistically significant correlation coefficient
However, the body mass has statistically significant positive correlations with all
anthropometric variables. Arm and leg lengths (both left and right) have statistically significant
correlation with all the longitudinal dimensionalities, as well as with chest circumference (which
is in a statistically significant relation with all the
anthropometric variables). Upper arm
skinfold and abdominal skinfold have statistically significant positive correlations with the body
mass, chest and abdominal circumference. Subscapular circumference is in a statistically
significant relation with all the variables except for the leg length (both left and right).
Having observed the variables used for assessing motor abilities (Table 4), it is possible
to determine statistically significant and positive correlations of the variables for agility
assessment (bending to the left side) with bending to the right side, triple jump and hand tapping.
Bending to the right side stands in a statistically significant and positive correlation with the
variable used for assessing movement frequency (hand tapping).
57
B. Proti-Gava et al.
Table 4
Correlation coefficient of the motor variables in male respondents
n=79 MPRE MOTL MOTD MISK MSKO MTRO MBAC MTPR MTPN
MTPU MTRB MLED
MSKL
MPRE
MOTL
.005
MOTD
-.175
.604*
MISK
-.119
-.073
-.107
MSKO
.035
.063
-.178
.093
MTRO
-.067
.250*
.117
-.071
.434*
MBAC
-.007
.122
.139
.149
.247*
.287*
MTPR
.169
.278*
.271*
.117
.215*
.234*
.281*
MTPN
.074
.014
-.085
-.007
.224*
.223*
.130
.443*
MTPU .278*
.021
-.029
-.100
-.075
.017
.108
.052
.157
MTRB
.220
-.050
-.124
-.135
.221*
-.011
.121
.176
.301*
.168
MLED
-.074
.050
.089
-.155
.141
.104
-.093
.094
.310*
.076
.381*
MSKL
.069
-.079
-.086
.033
.403*
.179
.403*
.183
.197
.175
.497*
.103
In the group of the male respondents with the postural disorders in the sagittal plane, it is
possible to observe statistically significant and positive correlations of the variable for
coordination assessment with the variable for agility (bending over with oneís feet apart).
Variables used for the explosive strength assessment have mutual positive correlation, which is
understandable. Apart from the already mentioned correlations, standing long jump is also in a
positive correlation with the variables: hand tapping, foot tapping, torso lifting and push-ups, on
a statistically significant level. The data obtained are the result of different muscle strength levels
in arms and shoulder area, due to swinging movements of the arms that are involved in the
movements and contribute considerably to the better results, as well as the abdominal and lower
extremities muscles. The long jump and triple jump tests are rather demanding in terms of
coordination, since the participants have to deal with the problem of correlating the arms
swinging movements with the simultaneous bounce. The assumption is that the respondents who
managed to do all these exercises properly, achieved better results, too. The variables for
explosive strength assessment also show mutual and statistically significant and positive
correlation.
Finally, correlations between anthropometric and motor skill space were also analyzed
(Table 5). Mutual statistically significant and positive correlations were observed.
58
Characteristics of adolescents with postural disorders
Table 5
Correlation coefficient of the anthropometric and motor variables in male respondents
N=79
AVIS AMAS ADRU ADNL ADND AOGK AOTR AONA AOPO AKNA AKTR AKLE
MPRE
.091
.133
.095
.164
.169
.081
.106
.067
.065
.044
-.004
.036
MOTL
.174
.006
.192
.144
.137
-.040
-.100
.073
-.051
-.155
-.128
-.068
MOTD
.149
-.017
.097
.066
.059
-.040
-.053
-.011
-.032
-.056
-.018
-.053
MISK
.268*
.196
.206
.239
.241
.207
.146
.032
.036
.179
.120
.142
MSKO
.080
-.079
.140
.034
.039
-.093
-.113
-.035
-.053
-.421*
-.412*
-.376*
MTRO
.111
-.023
.065
.041
.039
-.029
-.105
.016
.075
-.177
-.257*
-.180
MBAC
.418*
.538*
.378*
.266*
.271*
.508*
.381*
.256*
.228*
.180
.009
.144
MTPR
.133
.144
.073
.079
.082
.207
.182
.029
.013
.027
.025
-.028
MTPN
-.157
-.070
-.100
-.051
-.043
-.015
-.053
.099
-.069
-.011
-.155
-.110
MTPU
.024
-.014
-.028
.105
.106
.002
.014
.005
.144
-.007
-.125
-.034
MTRB
-.188
-.148
-.217
-.115
-.114
-.149
-.091
.033
-.010
-.238*
-.223*
-.221*
MLED
-.200
-.294*
-.281*
-.276*
-.268*
-.275*
-.285*
-.030
-.044
-.196
-.218*
-.233*
MSKL
-.065
.076
-.118
-.162
-.160
.078
.117
.096
.038
-.196
-.212
-.176
The variable for assessing explosive strength of the arms and shoulder area stands in a
statistically significant and positive correlation with all the variables for anthropometric
characteristics assessment, except for the skinfold variables. The explosive leg strength,
however, has a statistically significant negative correlation with the abdominal skinfold. As for
the repetitive force, the torso-lifting variable has negative correlations with all the skinfolds. The
variable of torso straightening has negative correlations with: body mass, arm length, leg length,
chest and abdominal circumference and skinfolds (abdominal and subscapular). The obtained
variability is logical, since adipose tissue has a negative effect on the motor test results.
The female subsample (n=123), has a normal distribution, except in the case of two
variables of the anthropometric characteristics: abdominal and subscapular skinfolds (Table 6).
59
B. Proti-Gava et al.
Table 6
Central and dispersion parameters in female respondents
Variables:
SV
SD
MIN
MAX KV%
IP
P
AVIS
1668.50
56.77
1520.0
1808.0
3.40
1658.37
1678.64
.998
AMAS
558.88
77.09
398.0
842.0
13.79
545.11
572.64
.722
ADRU
729.35
29.37
660.0
790.0
4.03
724.11
734.59
.546
ADNL
936.06
38.14
845.0
1050.0
4.07
929.25
942.87
.634
ADND
935.93
39.12
845.0
1060.0
4.18
928.95
942.92
.706
AOGK
816.73
44.70
680.0
940.0
5.47
808.75
824.71
.241
AOTR
688.57
49.51
585.0
820.0
7.19
679.73
697.41
.253
AONA
254.50
21.25
210.0
320.0
8.35
250.70
258.29
.298
AOPO
352.02
24.80
300.0
450.0
7.04
347.60
356.45
.397
AKNA
16.57
4.53
9.4
30.6
27.36
15.76
17.38
.521
AKTR
20.82
8.15
7.4
49.2
39.15
19.36
22.27
.024
AKLE
13.39
5.84
6.4
37.4
43.60
12.35
14.44
.000
Given the anthropometric characteristics, the greatest level of homogeneity in this group
is observed in the case of body height, arm length, left and right leg lengths, chest circumference,
upper arm circumference and calf circumference. The highest level of heterogeneity in this group
is observed in the case of variables for adipose tissue assessment, skinfold assessment. Standard
deviation (77.09) has the highest values in the case of body mass, and those, considerable
individual differences are observed based on the minimum (39.8 kg) and maximum (84.2 kg)
values.
Table 7
Central and dispersion parameters of motor variables in female respondents
Variables:
SV
SD
MIN MAX
KV%
IP
P
65.12
11.62
34.0
91.0
17.85
63.05
67.20
.515
MPRE
MOTL
261.38
38.48
195.0
390.0
14.72
254.51
268.25
.315
MOTD
261.35
38.73
175.0
370.0
14.82
254.44
268.26
.550
MISK
71.70
15.30
30.0
126.0
21.33
68.97
74.43
.910
MSKO
166.22
21.19
115.0
212.0
12.75
162.44
170.00
.627
MTRO
479.98
54.22
340.0
640.0
11.30
470.30
489.66
.300
MBAC
353.58
75.12
190.0
530.0
21.25
340.17
366.99
.627
MTPR
29.22
3.65
19.0
39.0
12.50
28.57
29.87
.512
MTPN
20.19
2.04
16.0
26.0
10.10
19.83
20.56
.009
MTPU
5.18
2.71
.0
11.0
52.33
4.70
5.66
.760
MTRB
22.26
4.84
.0
33.0
21.73
21.40
23.12
.802
MLED
24.16
4.47
.0
32.0
18.50
23.36
24.96
.262
MSKL
2.09
3.36
.0
15.0
99.62
1.49
2.69
.000
60
Characteristics of adolescents with postural disorders
In the case of two variables of motor abilities: foot tapping and push-ups, the data
distribution is not normal. The results show homogeneity in most variables, as well as great
individual differences in motor skills space among the respondents. The greatest heterogeneity
among the female respondents is observed in the variables used for assessing the repetitive force
of the arms and shoulder area (push-ups) and the variable for coordination assessment (corner
tapping). The coefficient of variation has a higher percentage (100%) in the case of push-ups
variable, and a slightly lower percentage in the case of a corner-tapping variable (52%). Yet, the
greatest individual differences are observed in the case of explosive strength of arms and
shoulder area (KV=75%), where minimum and maximum values range between 190 and 530.
Considering the obtained results of the anthropometric characteristics
(Table
8), a
conclusion may be drawn that there is an interrelation of a large number of variables. Body
height is in a statistically significant correlation with the body mass, arm length, leg length
(ADNL and ADND) and chest circumference. Arm length stands in a positive correlation with
all the longitudinal measures and all the circumferences. The body mass, unlike all the given
variables, has a statistically significant correlation with all the anthropometric variables. The
variables for the assessment of body voluminosity and adipose tissue, which were measured by
means of circumferences and skinfolds, stand in mutually and statistically significant positive
correlations.
Table 8
Correlation coefficient of the anthropometric variables in female respondents
N=123 AVIS AMAS ADRU ADNL ADND AOGK AOTR AONA AOPO AKNA AKTR AKLE
AMAS .359*
ADRU
.809*
.430*
ADNL
.855*
.258*
.837*
ADND .866*
.240*
.847*
.974*
AOGK .204*
.829*
.335*
.167
.157
AOTR
.129
.795*
.289*
.128
.096
.778*
AONA
.053
.827*
.197*
.034
.018
.784*
.734*
AOPO
.176
.847*
.243*
.066
.055
.683*
.669*
.744*
AKNA
-.017
.613*
.108
-.015
-.056
.576*
.614*
.652*
.529*
AKTR
-.106
.629*
.043
-.092
-.131
.596*
.660*
.580*
.526*
.714*
AKLE
-.128
.562*
.040
-.076
-.105
.583*
.671*
.592*
.495*
.663*
.733*
The variables for agility assessment are in mutually and statistically significant positive
correlations (Table 9). In addition to this, bending over with oneís feet apart is in statistically
significant positive correlations with all other motor variables except for the variable for
assessing repetitive force in arms and shoulder area. Apart from the mutually positive
correlations, explosive strength is in statistically significant correlation with all other motor
variables, with the variables for coordination assessment excluded (MTPU). In the case of
repetitive force, similar results were obtained, in terms of having mutually and statistically
significant positive correlations, but not having correlations with coordination on a statistically
significant level.
61
B. Proti-Gava et al.
Table 9
Correlation coefficient of the motor variables in female respondents
n=123 MPRE MOTL MOTD MISK MSKO MTRO MBAC MTPR MTPN
MTPU MTRB MLED MSKL
MPRE
MOTL
.278*
MOTD
.351*
.766*
MISK
-.204*
-.194*
-.272*
MSKO
.298*
.045
.113
-.112
MTRO
.342*
.101
.115
.001
.626*
MBAC
.304*
.289*
.238*
-.295*
.377*
.219*
MTPR
.354*
.107
.126
-.005
.364*
.335*
.405*
MTPN
.371*
.027
.057
-.067
.348*
.297*
.362*
.625*
MTPU
.199*
-.064
-.054
-.015
.062
.093
-.071
.173
.145
MTRB
.259*
.003
-.021
-.128
.448*
.434*
.393*
.348*
.269*
-.002
MLED
.195*
.008
-.090
-.092
.251*
.199*
.211*
.219*
.095
.111
.501*
MSKL
.137*
.161
.080
-.065
.418*
.328*
.355*
.280*
.248*
-.151
.395*
.207*
Relations between certain motor abilities are such that a frequent increase in the strength
level, such as repetitive force, influences the reduction in the mobility of certain body segments.
Therefore, it is necessary to attend to these two abilities in such a way that they both develop in a
coordinated and consistent way. It is noticeable that female respondents with a highly developed
strength have difficulty solving the coordination or coordination-based tasks.
62
Characteristics of adolescents with postural disorders
Table 10
Correlation coefficient of the anthropometric and motor variables in female respondents
N=123 AVIS AMAS ADRU ADNL ADND AOGK AOTR AONA AOPO AKNA AKTR
AKLE
MPRE
.193*
.182*
.281*
.205*
.207*
.228*
.118
.246*
.204*
.082
-.076
.056
MOTL .272*
.263*
.301*
.210*
.210*
.252*
.088
.203*
.157
.044
.043
-.035
MOTD .215*
.271*
.259*
.173
.164
.312*
.123
.186*
.150
.041
.014
-.013
MISK
.051
-.271*
-.013
.128
.146
-.281*
-.244*
-.258*
-.312*
-.162
-.192*
-.143
MSKO
.098
-.028
.113
.118
.126
.121
.004
.051
-.047
-.173
-.226*
-.126
MTRO .239*
-.142
.291*
.323*
.338*
-.010
-.128
-.071
-.163
-.220*
-.296*
-.196*
MBAC .285*
.442*
.349*
.200*
.210*
.364*
.279*
.376*
.356*
.109
.069
.011
MTPR
.217*
.213*
.203*
.192*
.182*
.193*
.148
.273*
.117
.127
.061
.103
MTPN
.083
.052
.121
.077
.084
.057
.029
.134
.065
.062
.042
.088
MTPU
.075
.015
.076
.130
.096
.048
.061
.041
.020
.154
.084
.096
MTRB
.169
.120
.190*
.198*
.207*
.116
.110
.143
.124
-.106
-.048
-.027
MLED
.064
.127
.140
.143
.117
.088
.155
.161
.081
.029
.088
.035
MSKL
-.109
-.057
-.095
-.085
-.065
.019
-.100
.144
-.040
-.273*
-.202*
-.190*
Agility, explosive strength and repetitive force have statistically significant correlations,
with anthropometric characteristics (Table 10). Bending over with oneís feet apart is in a positive
correlations with all other anthropometric variables with the exclusion of abdominal
circumference and skinfolds. The variables used for assessing the explosive strength (MSKO and
MTRO) are in negative correlations with the skinfolds. The third explosive strength variable,
basketball throw, is in statistically significant positive correlations with all the variables except
for the skinfolds. As far as repetitive force is concerned, torso lifting variable has positive
correlations with length measures (ADRU, ADNL i ADND), whereas the variable of the push-
ups has negative correlations with all the skinfolds.
Discussion
There are plenty of factors which may cause problems in growth and development of
children and adolescents, such as reduced motor ability caused by hypokinesia, rapid growth,
various health conditions
(obesity, disorders caused by inadequate diet, type
2 diabetes,
asthmatic diseases, etc.). In addition to this, it is frequently the case that the imposed bad patterns
of unstable civilization values result in postural disorders (Brettschneider & Naul, 2004, 2007;
James, 2004).
The lifestyle of todayís adolescents usually consists of passive mental activities that do
not change over time and unhealthy habits which, among other things, include a sedentary way
63
B. Proti-Gava et al.
of life and bad eating habits at an alarming rate. Lack of the physical activity and improper
eating habits lead to obesity or overweightedness reaching epidemic proportions in the
developed world (James, 2004).
If these conditions ìcombineî in the adolescence period, which is when the rapid bone
growth takes place leading to the disproportionality in their length and muscle strength, then
postural disorders and even deformities are well expected to occur. The transition to the full
biological maturity, which takes place about the age of 24, does not happen abruptly, but in a
series of gradual uneven transformations. Specifically prominent is the interrelation between
posture and anthropometric characteristics, body height and body mass (Vlaökali„, Boûi„-Krsti„,
Obradovi„ i Srdi„, 2006). Spinal postural disorders in the sagittal plane seem to occur at a higher
rate in female adolescents,
48.1%, than in male adolescents,
36.9% (Jovovi„, 2007). The
impaired posture in the sagittal plane can be diverse. As far as the sagittal plane is concerned,
what we understand by postural disorders are all the movements of body segments in a forward-
backward direction. The spinal column has four physiological curves. If any increase in
concavity or convexity of any these curves was observed, the respondent was classified in the
group of postural disorders in the sagittal plane. Male respondents with a distorted posture in the
sagittal plane, as far as their body-build and motor abilities level are concerned, do not differ
much from their peers. The results showed considerable individual differences in anthropometric
characteristics and motor abilities level. Generally, it is not possible to draw a conclusion that the
respondents with a distorted posture in the sagittal plane have similar body-build (physique) nor
that they have poorly developed certain motor abilities. Torso straightening, as a motor test
representing a variable for assessing the repetitive force of the back of the body has negative
correlations with: the body mass, arm length, leg length, chest and abdominal circumference and
skinfolds (abdominal and subscapular). The obtained variability is logical since the adipose
tissue negatively affects the motor test results. A fatty component, aside from being a burden, is
related to the movement regime, which is why the children who move less have lower motor
efficiency. Just their moving less provides the basis necessary for accumulating the adipose, fatty
tissue. When it comes to negative correlations of the repetitive force of the torso and the
skinfolds, we may say that they suggest that taller children achieve poorer results when
compared to relatively shorter children who have shorter limbs. Furthermore, since this is the
situation where the respondents have lordotic, kyphotic bad posture and flat back, another
assumption is that there may exist an imbalance between the abdominal flexor muscles and
paravertebral muscles. Repetitive trunk muscle strength and shoulder area flexibility account for
the difference between a remarkably improper or proper sagittal body posture (Pauöi„, 2007).
Similar results were obtained using the subsample of female respondents. The most prominent
individual differences were observed in the explosive strength of arms and shoulder area. The
results obtained in this way can be accounted for by the weak musculature of the respondents
with kyphotic posture or flat back. The results of a correlation analysis show that the explosive
strength of arms and shoulder area and repetitive force of arms and shoulder area have negative
correlations with all the skinfolds.
Therefore, physical activity as an indicator of a healthy adolescent lifestyle (PoËek, 2010)
represents a real resource of usefulness that physical exercise can provide for female high school
students (Bonacin, 2010).
64
Characteristics of adolescents with postural disorders
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Submitted March 3, 2010
Accepted May 28, 2010
65