Ivana Milovanović • Radenko Matić • Jovan Vuković • Milica Blagojević • Mladen Mikić • Dragan Marinković
The paper contains the results of the field research that the authors used in order to determine the existence and manifesting forms of peer pressure in youth sports. The sample consists of young people aged 11 to 18, who practice sport (N=536). The research was conducted in the second half of 2019 in the territory of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. The research results indicate that there are various forms of aggressive and violent behavior among youth, among which psychological violence predominates. The most common place for violence is the dressing room, after training or a competition. In terms of age, high-school-age children report higher level of violence victimization compared to older primary school children. The research results testify to the fact that sport shares “the fate” of the society in which it exists and that policy makers in youth sports should take into consideration this social phenomenon as well.
Keywords: children • youth • aggression • peer violence • sport • Vojvodina.
Allen, J.J. & Anderson, A. C. (2017). Aggression and Violence: Definitions and Distinctions. In: P. Sturmey, (Ed.) The Wiley Handbook of Violence and Aggression (1–14). https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119057574.whbva001
Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27–51. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135231
Bailey, R. (2006). Physical Education and Sport in Schools: A Review of Benefits and Outcomes. Journal of School Health, 76(8), 397–401.
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs: Pergamon Press.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
Biddle, S. (1995). Exercise and psychosocial health. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 66(4), 292–297.
Bojanić, Ž., Šakan, D., & Nedeljković, J. (2018). Personality traits as predictors of perfectionism. Facta Universitatis, 16(1), 57–71.
Buka, S. L., Stichick, T. L., Birdthistle, I., & Earls, F. J. (2001). Youth exposure to violence: Prevalence, risks, and consequences. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 71(3), 298-310. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0002-94188.8.131.528
Bushman, B. J., & Huesmann, L. R. (2010). Aggression. In: S.T. Fiske, D.T. Gilbert, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology (pp. 833–863). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Ciairano, S., Gemelli, F., Molinengo, G., Musella, G., Rabaglietti, E., & Roggero, A. (2007). Sport, stress, self-efficacy and aggression towards peers: unravelling the role of the coach. Cognition, Brain and Behavior, 11(1), 175–194.
Collins, N. M., Cromartie, F., Butler, S. & Bae, J. (2018). Effects of Early Sport Participation on Self-esteem and Happiness. The Sport Journal, 20, 1–20.
DeWall, C. N., & Anderson, C. A. (2011). The general aggression model. In: P. R. Shaver & M. Mikulincer (Eds.), Herzilya series on personality and social psychology. Human aggression and violence: Causes, manifestations, and consequences (pp. 15–33). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/12346-001
Djordjic, V., & Matic, R. (2008). Uzrast i pol kao faktori uticaja na fizičku aktivnost dece i adolescenata. [Age and gender as factors of influence on the physical activity of children and adolescents]. In: G. Bala (ed.), Anthropological status and physical activity of children and youth (pp. 55-77). Novi Sad: Faculty of Sport and Physical Education.
Gentile, A., Milovanovic, I., Valantine, I., Kreivyte, R., Tilindiene, I., Mujkic, D., Ajdinovic, A., Kesic, A., Drid, P., Obradovic, B., Korovljev, D., Bianco, A., Boca, S. (2019). Violence, exclusion and the role of children and adolescents moral features in the sport. Acta Medica Mediteranea, 35(3), 1681–1683.
Huesmann, L. R., & Taylor, L. D. (2006). The role of the mass media in violent behavior. In: R.C. Brownson (Ed.), Annual review of public health. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.
Koo, J-E. & Lee, K-U. (2014). The Relationships of elementary school students’ sports
participation with optimism, humor styles, and school life satisfaction. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 10(2), 111–117.
Milovanović, I., Milošević, Z., Maksimović, N., Korovljev, D., & Drid, P. (2019a). Certain Indications of Violence in children and youth sports. Physical education and sport through the centuries, 6(2), 46–61.
Milovanović, I., Roklicer, R., & Drid, P. (2019b). The Relation between Youth sport and the Reduction of Peer Violence. Facta universitatis, 17(3), 479–490. https://doi.org/10.22190/FUPES190413042M
Park, S., Chiu, W., & Won, D. (2017). Effects of physical education, extracurricular sports activities, and leisure satisfaction on adolescent aggressive behavior: A latent growth modeling approach. PLoS ONE 12(4): e0174674. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0174674.
Popadić, D., Plut, D., & Pavlović, Z. (2014). Nasilje u školama u Srbiji: Analiza stanja od 2006. do 2013. godine [School Violence in Serbia: A Situation Analysis from 2006 to 2013]. Beograd: Institut za psihologiju.
Radenović, S. (2012). Bioetika i nasilje [Bioethics and violence]. Godišnjak Katedre za društvene i humanističke znanosti u medicini Medicinskog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Rijeci, 3(5), 205–218.
Richman, E. & Schaffer, D. (2000). “IF YOU LET ME PLAY SPORTS” How Might Sport Participation Influence the Self-Esteem of Adolescent Females? Psychology of Women Quarterly, 24(2), 189–199.
Steptoe, A. & Butler, N. (1996). Sports participation and emotional wellbeing in adolescents. Lancet, 347, 1789–1792.
Tripković, M. (2007). Nasilje [Violence]. In: A. Mimica i M. Bogdanović (ur.) Sociološki rečnik, (pp. 346–347), Beograd: Zavod za udžbenike.
Wang, S., Zhang, W., Li, D., Yu, C., Zhen, S., & Huang, S. (2015). Forms of aggression, peer relationships, and relational victimization among Chinese adolescent girls and boys: roles of prosocial behaviour. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1264. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01264
Wankel, L. & Berger, B. (1990). The Psychological and Social Benefits of Sport and Physical Activity. Journal of Leisure Research, 22(2), 167–182.