Vladimir Galic, Department of Physiology, Medical faculty Novi Sad
Skeletal muscle is extremely adaptable to various stresses which can be placed upon it. In
spite of importance of skeletal muscles, little is known about genetic factors which demonstrate
high influence to muscle size, function, strength and adaptation to various environmental factors.
Because endurance performance is a multifactorial trait, the list of candidate genes which could
account for human variation in related phenotypes is extensive. One of the first characterized and
most frequently studied genetic variant is a polymorphism in the angiotensin converting enzyme
I gene. The ACTN3 gene is the first structural skeletal muscle gene with a relation between its
genotype and elite sprinter performance. Nevertheless, current genetic testing cannot provide an
extra advantage over existing testing methods in determining sports selection in young athletes.
The main challenge still remains to identify other, complex polygenetic variants and their
interactions with environmental factors which could provide benefit in the sports selection and
existing talent identification.
Keywords: exercise genomics, genetic polymorphism, muscle tissue
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Submitted 12 April, 2011
Accepted 20 May, 2011